Founded by ethnic Turks in 1299, the Ottoman Empire took its name from Osman I, the leader of what was initially a small principality in northwestern Anatolia (Asia Minor). Over the course of the next six centuries, Ottoman rule expanded across much of the Mediterranean Basin. At the height of its power under Suleiman the Magnificent (1494-1566), the Ottoman Empire represented a vast multilingual and multiethnic realm encompassing southeastern Europe, North and East Africa, Western Asia, and the Caucasus.…
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi.
The American Friends Service Committee, a Quaker relief organization, helped thousands of people before, during, and after World War II. Learn about its refugee aid work.
The three principal partners in the Axis alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan. Learn more about the Axis powers in WW2.
An underground courier for the Polish government-in-exile, Jan Karski was one of the first to deliver eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust to Allied leaders.
Prewar wedding portrait of Reine and Yishua Ghozlan in Constantine, Algeria, on March 29, 1932. The couple experienced antisemitism in the prewar years, and in 1933 Reine and Yishua survived a deadly pogrom by hiding with French Christian friends. After the start of World War II, Yishua was thrown out of his position in the post office. Reine, Yishua, and their children were evicted from their apartment.
Sketch from the scrapbook of Donald Coster presented to him during his inspection of the internment camp in Djelfa. The page is entitled, "Gulliver's travels to Djelfa." Djelfa, Algeria, ca. 1942.
Sketch from the scrapbook of Donald Coster presented to him during his inspection of the internment camp in Djelfa. The page is entitled, "All roads don't lead to Rome." Djelfa, Algeria, ca. 1941.
Germany invaded France in May 1940. This footage shows German tanks, artillery, and divebombers attacking the Maginot Line, a series of French fortifications intended to protect France's border with Germany. The main German assault, however, went to the north through Luxembourg and bypassed the Maginot Line. German forces entered Paris on June 14, 1940. Little more than a week later, defeated France signed an armistice with Germany.
View of the dam being built by forced laborers from the Im Fout labor camp in Morocco. Photograph taken 1941-42.
The SS established the Sachsenhausen concentration camp as the principal concentration camp for the Berlin area. Located near Oranienburg, north of Berlin, the Sachsenhausen camp opened on July 12, 1936.
The first concentration camps in Germany were established soon after Hitler's appointment as chancellor in January 1933. The Storm Troopers (SA) and the police established concentration camps to handle the masses of people arrested as alleged political opponents of the regime. These camps were established on the local level throughout Germany. Gradually, most of these early camps were disbanded and replaced by centrally organized concentration camps under the exclusive jurisdiction of the SS…
A digital representation of the United States 1st Infantry Division's flag. The US 1st Infantry Division (the "Big Red One" division) was formed in 1917 and fought in World War I. During World War II, they were involved in the Allied invasions of North Africa and Italy, as well as D-Day and the Battle of the Bulge. Additionally, the division captured the city of Aachen and liberated Zwodau and Falkenau an der Eger, two subcamps of Flossenbürg. The 1st Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating…
A digital representation of the United States 36th Infantry Division's flag. The US 36th Infantry Division (the "Texas" or "Lone Star" division) was established in 1917 and fought in World War I. During World War II, they were involved in the Allied invasions of North Africa and the Battle of the Bulge. The division also overran some of the Kaufering subcamps of the Dachau concentration camp. The 36th Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit in 1995 by the United States Army Center of…
Nazi anti-Jewish laws began stripping Jews of rights and property from the start of Hitler’s dictatorship. Learn about antisemitic laws in prewar Germany.
San Francisco Chronicle newspaper article titled "The Refugee Tragedy." The article was based on an interview with Moses Beckelman of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, an aid organization. It discussed the overcrowding of Polish and Lithuanian refugees stranded in Shanghai, Kobe (Japan), and Lisbon (Portugal), all stops en route to North and South America. The primary cause of this bottleneck was a lack of transit and entry visas, a result of most countries closing their borders to…
Terese Cohen, a Tunisian Jewish women, poses with her two children, Nadia and Marcel. Immediately after the Allied landings in Algeria and Morocco, the Germans occupied Tunisia. After the occupation, an SS officer came to the Cohen's house and confiscated everything leaving only the table and chairs for the Germans to use. They gave the family 24 hours to pack and leave and then expropriated the home to use as a barracks for soldiers.
Close-up portrait of two prisoners in the Im Fout labor camp in Morocco. The camp was approximately 59 miles southwest of Casablanca, and housed a group of foreign workers. Many of the prisoners fell ill because of poor living conditions in the camp. Im Fout, Morocco, 1941-42.
A digital representation of the United States 45th Infantry Division's flag. The US 45th Infantry Division (the "Thunderbird" division) was established in 1924. During World War II, they were involved in the Allied invasions of North Africa and Italy, as well as the capture of the city of Nuremberg. The division also liberated the Dachau concentration camp. The 45th Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit in 1985 by the United States Army Center of Military History and the United States…
A German Jewish prisoner named Rosenthal pushes a cart in the stone quarry of the Im Fout labor camp in Morocco. The camp housed a group of foreign workers, many of whom fell ill because of poor living conditions. Im Fout, Morocco, 1941-42.
Portrait of the family of Mushon and Rebeka Kamchi in Bitola. Isak Kamchi is pictured in the front row at the right. Isak was born in Bitola. Several of his siblings and cousins left Macedonia for Palestine and North America before the war. During World War II, Isak served as the leader of a partisan unit operating in Croatia. He established a safehouse at his parent's home in Zagreb where partisans could rest and recuperate. His mother ran the safehouse, cooking for the men and nursing them back to…
Reine (seated in window) and Yishua Ghozlan (standing) were married in Constantine, Algeria, on March 29, 1932. They are pictured here with two of their parents. The couple experienced antisemitism in the prewar years, and in 1933 Reine and Yishua survived a deadly pogrom by hiding with French Christian friends. After the start of World War II, Yishua was thrown out of his position in the post office. Reine, Yishua, and their children were evicted from their apartment.
In Hamburg, members of the SA and students from the University of Hamburg burn books they regard as "un-German." Hamburg, Germany, May 15, 1933.
May 10, 1933. On this date, books deemed "un-German" are publicly burned throughout Germany.
Blood libels were false allegations that Jews used the blood of non-Jewish children in rituals. Nazi propagandists used this false charge in their antisemitic propaganda.
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