Helen Keller was an author, suffragist, and disability rights advocate. Her socialist and anti-war writing was burned under the Nazi regime in 1933. Learn more.
The International League Against Anti-Semitism in North Africa (LICA) was created in 1929 as a Jewish-Muslim partnership to combat racism and antisemitism.
The Lackenbach internment and transit camp for Roma, located in what had been eastern Austria, was a departure point for deportations to Lodz and Auschwitz.
African Americans were among the liberators of the Buchenwald concentration camp. William Scott, seen here during training, was a military photographer and helped document Nazi crimes in the camp. Alabama, United States, March 1943.
US radio and TV journalist Edward R. Murrow reported live from London during the Blitz; he also broadcast the first eyewitness account of the liberation of Buchenwald.
Learn about US journalists, including Edward Murrow, William Shirer, and Dorothy Thompson, and their impact during the Nazi rise to power and WWII .
Learn about the North African military campaigns of World War II which took place between September 13, 1940, and May 13, 1943.
Learn about the diverse Jewish population of North Africa on the eve of World War II.
Learn about the network of camps that the French collaborationist Vichy authorities established in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and French West Africa.
The Vichy regime introduced race laws to the North African territories in October of 1940. Learn about the impact of the laws on the region’s Jewish people.
Operation Torch was the Allied invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. Learn more.
Learn about North Africa's Jewish communities; WWII military campaigns in North Africa; Vichy's introduction of race laws; and networks of labor camps in North Africa.
Learn more about the 1943 Tunisia campaign, a four-month long struggle between Allied and Axis powers in North Africa during World War II.
Learn more about the Western Desert campaign during World War II in Egypt and Libya between 1940-1943.
In Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and French West Africa, French collaborationist Vichy authorities established a network of different types of camps: penal camps, labor camps, and internment camps. These camps included Jewish and non-Jewish European...
Explore the story of over 2,000 Polish Jewish refugees who fled east to escape war-torn Europe. They sought safety in such distant places as China and Japan.
Hermann Ludwig Maas, a Protestant pastor in Heidelberg, Germany, was a rescuer and clergyman who stood in solidarity with the Jewish community.
North African Jews did not constitute a single community before or during World War II but, rather, were a diverse population of roughly 500,000, divided between the present-day countries of the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya...
Vidkun Quisling, Minister President of Norway from 1942 to 1945, was a Norwegian fascist and Nazi collaborator. His last name has come to mean “traitor” or “collaborator.”
An illustration in the North-China Daily News following the arrival of a group of Jewish refugees in Shanghai, in Japanese-occupied China. August 24, 1941. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Erwin Rommel was commander of the German Afrika Korps in North Africa during WWII. Learn about Rommel's military career, death, and ongoing questions around his commitment to Nazism.
Varian Fry was an American journalist who helped anti-Nazi refugees escape from France between 1940 and 1941. Learn about his rescue efforts.
In July 1936, the SS opened the Sachsenhausen concentration camp as the principal concentration camp for the Berlin area.
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.
Capturing the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen was a major milestone for US forces in WWII, allowing the Allies to move troops and tanks across the Rhine river. Learn more.
Originally a subcamp of Buchenwald, Dora-Mittelbau became the center of an extensive network of forced-labor camps for the production of V-2 missiles and other weapons.
World War II was the largest and most destructive conflict in history. Learn about key WWII dates in this timeline of events, including when WW2 started and ended.
Lieutenant General (later Field Marshal) Erwin Rommel commanded German forces during the campaign in North Africa. Libya, 1941.
More than one thousand unaccompanied refugee children fleeing Nazi persecution arrived in the United States between 1933 and 1945. Learn more
Generals Dwight D. Eisenhower and George S. Patton discuss Allied military operations in North Africa. Djebel Kouif, Algeria, March 16, 1943.
Janusz was the eldest of four children born to Catholic parents in Plock, a town located in a rural area north of Warsaw. His father was an accountant. Janusz attended local schools, and became active in scouting. 1933-39: Janusz went to Warsaw to study civil engineering. On September 1, 1939, the Germans began bombing Warsaw. One week later, all able-bodied men who had not been mobilized were directed to retreat east. On September 17, Janusz was 90 miles from the Romanian border. That night, the Soviets…
Between 1939-1942, Nazi Germany invaded multiple countries across Europe. Learn more about German expansion during World War II.
Learn more about the Lend-Lease Act, which was the American policy that extended material aid to the WWII Allied powers from 1941-1945.
Former Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amin al-Husayni was an exiled political leader who sought an alliance with the Axis Powers. Learn about his wartime propaganda efforts.
Italy was home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in Europe. It was also a member of the Axis alliance with Nazi Germany. Learn about Italy during WWII and the Holocaust.
World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945, when the Allies defeated the Axis powers. Learn about key invasions and events during WWII, also known as the Second World War.
General Bernard L. Montgomery, commander of British forces in Egypt, watches British tanks move toward German lines during the military campaign in North Africa. November 1942.
Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Despite Allied naval superiority, German naval forces played an important role in the campaign. This footage shows German naval units sailing towards Norway in rough seas. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic for the German navy, especially the submarine fleet, and safeguarded transports of Swedish iron ore for Germany's war industry.
Feliks was the only child of Catholic parents living in Czarnkow, a town close to the German border, some 40 miles north of Poznan. Czarnkow was situated on the Notec River. Feliks' parents owned a mineral water, soda and beer factory. They delivered their goods by horse and wagon to towns throughout the area. His parents also owned a restaurant and 120 acres of farmland. 1933-39: In 1937 Feliks entered the University of Poznan to study pharmacy. His education was cut short when the German army invaded…
Nazi student groups played a key role in aligning German universities with Nazi ideology and in solidifying Nazi power.
On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The surprise attack marked a turning point in the history of World War II and the Holocaust.
Learn about conditions and the treatment of prisoners in Ravensbrück, the largest concentration camp for women in the German Reich.
The 10th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Dachau in 1945.
In months of fighting with heavy losses, the US Army attempted to pierce the heavily fortified Hürtgen Forest section of Germany's border defenses. Learn more about the campaign.
In 1941, the Nazis established Janowska camp. It was primarily used as a forced-labor and transit camp.
Between 1940 and 1944, Latvia was occupied by the Soviets and then by the Germans. These occupations had grave consequences for Jews in Latvia. Learn more.
The Jewish Brigade Group of the British army was formally established in September 1944. It included more than 5,000 Jewish volunteers from Mandatory Palestine.
Book burnings and bans were not exclusive to—and did not end with—the Nazi regime. Learn more about the symbolism of book burnings.
Nazi Germany occupied Lvov, Poland in 1941. Learn about Lvov during World War II, the establishment of the Lvov ghetto, and deportations of Jews from there.
July 9, 2011. On this date, the Republic of South Sudan declared its independence from Sudan.
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