After Adolf Hitler became German chancellor on January 30, 1933, the SA and the SS unleashed waves of violence against political opponents and Jews. Learn more.
Learn more about the breakdown of freedoms and terror that ensued after the Nazi rise to power in January 1933.
The Westerbork transit camp, located in the German-occupied Netherlands, served as a temporary collection point for Jews in the Netherlands before deportation.
The Warsaw ghetto uprising was the largest, symbolically most important Jewish uprising, and first urban uprising in German-occupied Europe.
Learn about causes, scope, and impacts of the Great Depression, including how it played a role in Adolf Hitler's emergence as a viable political leader in Germany.
Read a summary extract from Eliezer Breslin’s testimony on escaping from the Mir ghetto, given during the WWII war crimes investigation into Semion Serafinowicz.
The Secrets of the Wise Men of Zion is the first documented version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion published outside of Russia. Published in Charlottenburg, Germany, 1920.
Julius Streicher, an early Nazi Party members, was an organizer of the anti-Jewish boycott of April 1933 and publisher of the virulently antisemitic Der Stürmer.
Death Marches Near the end of the war, when Germany's military force was collapsing, the Allied armies closed in on the Nazi concentration camps. The Soviets approached from the east, and the British, French, and Americans from the west. The Germans began frantically to move the prisoners out of the camps near the front and take them to be used as forced laborers in camps inside Germany. Prisoners were first taken by train and then by foot on "death marches," as they became known. Prisoners were forced…
The Warsaw ghetto uprising was the largest uprising by Jews during World War II. 100s of ghetto fighters fought heavily armed and well-trained Germans for nearly a month.
German authorities established the Vittel internment camp in occupied France in 1941. It belonged to the complex of POW camps designated Frontstalag 194.
The 63rd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating several of the Kaufering subcamps of Dachau in 1945.
Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and the radicalization of Nazi anti-Jewish policies triggered a mass exodus. Learn about the US and the refugee crisis of 1938–41.
Browse a series of short biographies from the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation.
Explore Gideon Frieder’s biography and learn about his experiences as a child during the Holocaust in Slovakia.
The Commissar Order was issued by the German Armed Forces High Command on June 6, 1941. It ordered soldiers to shoot Soviet Communist Party officials taken prisoner.
Stefan Zweig was a prolific author and one of the most popular writers of the interwar period. His work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Georg Bernhard was a prominent financial columnist. The Nazis declared that German journalism must be "cleansed" of Jews. Bernhard’s work was burned in 1933.
Learn about the administration and commandants of the Auschwitz camp complex in German-occupied Poland.
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration’s mission was to provide economic aid to European nations and assist refugees after World War II.
Bertolt Brecht was a leading German dramatist, well known for his political films and plays. His works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
The 103rd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Kaufering in 1945.
Dutch businessman Jan Zwartendijk aided Jewish refugees by issuing permits for them to enter Curaçao, a Dutch colonial possession in the West Indies.
In the decades following the Holocaust, the search for perpetrators continued. As they reach the end of their lives, the vast majority of Nazi offenders have escaped punishment.
Ernst Toller was one of the best-known German dramatists of the 1920s. He wrote against Nazism, and was among those whose works were burned under the Nazi regime.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Salzburg DP camp.
Julien Bryan’s ten-minute film Siege, first non-Nazi produced footage of the start of WWII, records horror and chaos in Warsaw following the German invasion.
The Allied decision not to bomb the gas chambers in or the rail lines leading to Auschwitz-Birkenau has been a source of sometimes bitter debate. Learn more.
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Silvio Ortona.
In 1941, the Nazis occupied Minsk and established a ghetto there. Learn more about life in Minsk during World War II.
The 14th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating several subcamps of Dachau in 1945.
American-Jewish journalist and author Ben Hecht co-wrote the We Will Never Die pageant and advocated for the rescue of Jewish victims from Nazism. Learn more.
Learn about the North African military campaigns of World War II which took place between September 13, 1940, and May 13, 1943.
The Nazis pursued the imperialist concept of Lebensraum (living space) as they conquered eastern Europe. Read more about the deadly consequences of Nazi imperialism.
The Germans established an internment camp at Drancy in August 1941. The following summer, Drancy became the main transit camp for deportations of Jews from France.
Learn more about the Western Desert campaign in Egypt and Libya between 1940-1943.
Leon Trotsky was a communist and close associate of Vladimir Lenin. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933. Learn more.
Learn more about the Jewish population in Germany in 1933.
Thomas Buergenthal's experiences as Holocaust survivor and international judge shape his unique perspective on judging war crimes today and justice after genocide.
Beginning in 1933, the Nazi regime harassed and destroyed lesbian communities and networks that had developed during the Weimar Republic.
The Grafeneck T4 Center was the first centralized killing center to be established by German authorities within the context of the Nazi “euthanasia,” or T4, program.
This 2005 Syrian edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion claims that the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were orchestrated by a Zionist conspiracy. The final chapter predicts the eventual destruction of the State of Israel. Published in Damascus, Syria, 2005. Gift of the Embassy of Israel.
Liberation Soviet soldiers were the first to liberate concentration camp prisoners in the final stages of the war. On July 23, 1944, they entered the Majdanek camp in Poland, and later overran several other killing centers. On January 27, 1945, they entered Auschwitz and there found hundreds of sick and exhausted prisoners. The Germans had been forced to leave these prisoners behind in their hasty retreat from the camp. Also left behind were victims' belongings: 348,820 men's suits, 836,255 women's coats,…
Explore a timeline of key events during 1945 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, the Holocaust, and liberation and the aftermath of the Holocaust.
After the Holocaust, many Jewish parents spent months or years searching for the children they had sent into hiding. Learn about the search for surviving relatives.
The 84th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two Neuengamme subcamps, Hannover-Ahlem and Salzwedel, in 1945.
Transcript of 2004 remarks delivered by Elie Wiesel, at a convening of the Darfur Emergency Summit, calling attention to atrocities in Sudan.
At its height, the Warsaw ghetto held over 400,000 people living in horrendous and worsening conditions. Learn about deportations both to and from the ghetto.
Operation Torch was the Allied invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. Learn more.
The Jewish children of Lodz suffered harsh conditions after the German invasion of Poland. Read excerpts from diaries where they recorded their experiences.
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