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  • Oradour-sur-Glane

    Article

    Oradour-sur-Glane was a small farming village of around 350 inhabitants, located near Clermont-Ferrand, some 15 miles west-north-west of Limoges. During World War II, it was located in the German-occupied zone of France. On June 10, 1944, troops of the 2nd Waffen-SS Panzer Division (armored division), Das Reich, massacred 642 people, almost the entire population, and then destroyed the village. After the war, Oradour-sur-Glane rivaled Lidice as an iconic symbol of German crimes against civilians in…

    Tags: resistance
    Oradour-sur-Glane
  • First Letter to All Judges

    Article

    From 1942 until the end of the war in 1945, the Nazi court system became more and more a state...

    First Letter to All Judges
  • Budy: An Auschwitz Subcamp

    Article

    Budy was one of more than 40 subcamps that the SS administered as part of the Auschwitz camp complex. Learn more.

  • Robert Wagemann describes fleeing from a clinic where, his mother feared, he was to be put to death by euthanasia

    Oral History

    Robert and his family were Jehovah's Witnesses. The Nazis regarded Jehovah's Witnesses as enemies of the state for their refusal to take an oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler, or to serve in the German army. Robert's family continued its religious activities despite Nazi persecution. Shortly before Robert's birth, his mother was imprisoned briefly for distributing religious materials. Robert's hip was injured during delivery, leaving him with a disability. When Robert was five years, he was ordered to report…

    Robert Wagemann describes fleeing from a clinic where, his mother feared, he was to be put to death by euthanasia
  • Murray Pantirer describes the antisemitic climate in postwar Krakow

    Oral History

    The Germans occupied Krakow in 1939. Murray's family was confined to the Krakow ghetto along with the rest of the Jewish population of the city. In 1942, Murray and a brother were deported for forced labor in the nearby Plaszow camp. In May 1944, his brother was transferred to Auschwitz and Murray was sent to the Gross-Rosen camp in Germany. Murray was later transferred to Bruennlitz, in the Sudetenland, as a forced laborer for German industrialist Oskar Schindler. Schindler helped the Jews who worked for…

    Murray Pantirer describes the antisemitic climate in postwar Krakow
  • Sarah (Sheila) Peretz Etons describes her experiences as a child in hiding

    Oral History

    Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. After the German occupation, Sarah (then just three years old) and her mother were forced into a ghetto. One day, a Polish Catholic policeman warned them that the ghetto was about to be liquidated. He sheltered Sarah and her mother first in his house, then in a potato storage bunker, and then in a chicken coop on his property. Sarah hid there for more than two years, until the area was liberated by Soviet forces. After the war, Sarah emigrated from…

    Sarah (Sheila) Peretz Etons describes her experiences as a child in hiding
  • The United States and the Holocaust, 1942–45

    Article

    Why did the United States go to war? What did Americans know about the “Final Solution”? How did Americans respond to news about the Holocaust? Learn more.

    The United States and the Holocaust, 1942–45
  • Sam Itzkowitz describes the first moments of liberation

    Oral History

    The Germans invaded Poland in September 1939. When Makow was occupied, Sam fled to Soviet territory. He returned to Makow for provisions, but was forced to remain in the ghetto. In 1942, he was deported to Auschwitz. As the Soviet army advanced in 1944, Sam and other prisoners were sent to camps in Germany. The inmates were put on a death march early in 1945. American forces liberated Sam after he escaped during a bombing raid.

    Tags: liberation
    Sam Itzkowitz describes the first moments of liberation
  • Bart Stern describes deportation to Auschwitz

    Oral History

    Following the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944, Bart was forced into a ghetto established in his home town. From May to July 1944, the Germans deported Jews from Hungary to the Auschwitz killing center in occupied Poland. Bart was deported by cattle car to Auschwitz. At Auschwitz, he was selected to perform forced labor, drilling and digging in a coal mine. As Soviet forces advanced toward the Auschwitz camp in January 1945, the Germans forced most of the prisoners on a death march out of the…

    Bart Stern describes deportation to Auschwitz
  • Deportations to Killing Centers

    Article

    With help from allies and collaborators, German authorities deported Jews from across Europe to killing centers. The vast majority were gassed almost immediately after their arrival in the killing centers.

    Deportations to Killing Centers

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