<h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">Early Years</span></h2>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><img class="image-embed embedded-narrative" src="/narrative/4300/thumb" alt="Margot and Anne Frank before their family fled to the Netherlands." data-narrative-stem-id="4300" data-narrative-slug="margot-and-anne-frank-before-their-family-fled-to-the-netherlands" data-narrative-type-name="photo" data-narrative-type-id="43" data-narrative-langcode="en" data-narrative-width="half" />She was born Annelies Marie Frank on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany. Her parents were Otto and Edith Frank.</span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">For the first 5 years of her life, Anne lived with her parents and older sister, Margot, in an apartment on the outskirts of Frankfurt. After the <a href="/narrative/65/en">Nazis seized power</a> in 1933, Otto Frank fled to Amsterdam in the Netherlands, where he had business connections. The rest of the Frank family soon followed, with Anne being the last of the family to arrive in February 1934 after staying with her grandparents in Aachen.</span></p>
<h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Fate of Jews in Amsterdam</span></h2>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The fate of the Frank family and other Jews in <a href="/narrative/5543/en">Amsterdam</a> was wrapped up with the German occupation of the city, which began in May 1940. In July 1942, German authorities and their Dutch collaborators began to concentrate Jews from throughout the Netherlands at <a href="/narrative/4469/en">Westerbork</a>, a transit camp near the Dutch town of Assen, not far from the German border. From Westerbork, German officials deported the Jews to <a href="/narrative/3673/en">Auschwitz-Birkenau</a> and <a href="/narrative/3790/en">Sobibor</a> killing centers in German-occupied Poland.</span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><img class="image-embed embedded-narrative" src="/narrative/4294/thumb" alt="Anne Frank: Amsterdam and deportation" data-narrative-stem-id="4294" data-narrative-slug="anne-frank-amsterdam-and-deportation" data-narrative-type-name="map" data-narrative-type-id="40" data-narrative-langcode="en" data-narrative-width="full" /></span></p>
<h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">In Hiding</span></h2>
<p> <span style="font-weight: 400;"><img class="image-embed embedded-narrative" src="/narrative/4296/thumb" alt="Excerpt from Anne Frank's diary, October 10, 1942: " data-narrative-stem-id="4296" data-narrative-slug="excerpt-from-anne-franks-diary-october-10-1942-this-is-a-photograph-of-me-as-i-wish-i-looked-all-the-time" data-narrative-type-name="photo" data-narrative-type-id="43" data-narrative-langcode="en" data-narrative-width="half" /></span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">During the first half of July, Anne and her family hid in an apartment that would eventually hide four Dutch Jews as well—Hermann, Auguste, and Peter van Pels, and Fritz Pfeffer. For two years, they lived in a secret attic apartment behind the office of the family-owned business at 263 Prinsengracht Street, which Anne referred to in her diary as the Secret Annex. Otto Frank's friends and colleagues, Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler, Jan Gies, and Miep Gies, had helped to prepare the hiding place and smuggled food and clothing to the Franks at great risk to their own lives.</span></p>
<p> <span style="font-weight: 400;">While in hiding, Anne kept a diary in which she recorded her fears, hopes, and experiences.</span></p>
<h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">Arrest and Deportation</span></h2>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">On August 4, 1944, the Gestapo (German Secret State Police) discovered the hiding place. It has been long thought that the authorities acted after being tipped off by an anonymous Dutch caller. But a more recent theory is that the German SD discovered the hiding place by chance, while investigating reports that illegal work and fraud with ration coupons were occurring at the house.</span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">That same day, <a href="/narrative/11779/en">Gestapo</a> official SS Sergeant Karl Silberbauer and two Dutch police collaborators arrested the Franks; the Gestapo sent them to Westerbork transit camp on August 8. One month later, on September 4, 1944, SS and police authorities placed the Franks and the four others hiding with them on a train transport to Auschwitz-Birkenau in German-occupied Poland. </span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The transport arrived in Auschwitz the following day with 1,019 Jews on board. Men and women were separated.</span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Selected for labor due to their youth, Anne and her sister, Margot were transferred to the <a href="/narrative/4549/en">Bergen-Belsen</a> concentration camp in northern Germany in late October 1944. </span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The women chosen from this transport, including Anne, Edith, and Margot, were tattooed with numbers between A-25060 and A-25271. Records indicating their exact numbers have not been preserved. Although Anne's death certificate documents her movement between camps, it does not include her tattoo ID number either.</span></p>
<h2><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Fate of the Frank Family</span></h2>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Both sisters died of typhus in March 1945, just a few weeks before <a href="/narrative/8176/en">British troops liberated Bergen-Belsen</a> on April 15, 1945. </span></p>
<p> <span style="font-weight: 400;">SS officials also selected Anne's parents for labor. Anne's mother, Edith died in Auschwitz in early January 1945. </span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><img class="image-embed embedded-narrative" src="/narrative/4308/thumb" alt="The house at Prinsengracht 263, where Anne Frank and her family were hidden." data-narrative-stem-id="4308" data-narrative-slug="the-house-at-prinsengracht-263-where-anne-frank-and-her-family-were-hidden" data-narrative-type-name="photo" data-narrative-type-id="43" data-narrative-langcode="en" data-narrative-width="half" />Only Anne's father, Otto, survived the war after Soviet forces liberated Auschwitz on January 27, 1945. Otto was presented later with Anne’s writings, which were preserved by Miep Gies one of the Dutch citizens who had hidden the Franks. Otto Frank was integral to getting his daughter’s diary published.</span></p>
<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The home where the Franks hid in Amsterdam continues to attract a large audience. Now known as the Anne Frank House, it drew more than 1.2 million visitors in 2015.</span></p>



Children were especially vulnerable to Nazi persecution. As many as 1.5 million children, about 1 million of them Jewish, were killed by Nazi Germany and its collaborators.

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