Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics
Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust
Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust.
Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically
Members of the Hlinka Guard and a squad of ethnic Germans march during a parade in Slovakia, a Nazi satellite state. Date uncertain.
Victims of German SS and Hungarian Arrow Cross terror in the Budapest ghetto. The bodies were found in the courtyard of the Pestor synagogue on Dohany Street. Budapest, Hungary, January 1945.
Jews from Bulgarian-occupied Macedonia interned in the "Monopol" tobacco factory, which was used as a transit camp. They were ultimately deported to the Treblinka killing center. Skopje, Macedonia, March 1943.
Jews from Bulgarian-occupied Macedonia and Thrace interned in the "Monopol" tobacco factory, which was was used as a transit camp. They were ultimately deported to the Treblinka killing center. Skopje, Macedonia, March 11-31, 1943.
German police and Ukrainian collaborators force Jewish prisoners to undress before they are shot. Chernigov, Soviet Union, 1942.
Lithuanian collaborators guard Jews before their execution. Ponary, Lithuania, June–July, 1941.
Nazis and Latvian militia men ordered Jews to undress, then shot them in the trenches. Near Liepaja, Latvia, December 1941.
Corpses of inmates discovered by Soviet troops at the Klooga forced-labor camp. Nazi guards and Estonian collaborators had executed the prisoners and then stacked the bodies for burning. Estonia, September 1944.
Site where members of Einsatzgruppe A and Estonian collaborators carried out a mass execution of Jews in September 1941. Kalevi-Liiva, Estonia, after September 1944.
Pierre Laval, head of the government of Vichy France and Nazi collaborator. Shown here delivering a radio address. France, 1941–42.
This photograph shows the aftermath of a shooting along the banks of the Danube River in Budapest. Members of the pro-German Arrow Cross party massacred thousands of Jews along the banks of the Danube. Budapest, Hungary, 1944.
Members of the fascist Arrow Cross Party arrest Jews. Budapest, Hungary, October-December 1944.
High-ranking Arrow Cross Party members with Nazi officers. Budapest, Hungary, fall 1944.
Horia Sima, leader of the Iron Guard and deputy prime minister of the Romanian government in 1940. Bucharest, Romania, 1940.
In this image, Horia Sima salutes his supporters during a ceremony commemorating the deaths of Ion Mota and Vasile Marin, Iron Guardsmen who were killed in the Spanish Civil War.
Sephardic synagogue destroyed during the January 21-23 Iron Guard pogrom. Bucharest, Romania, January 1941.
Police force Romanian Jews, survivors of a pogrom in Iasi, to board a train during their expulsion from Iasi to Calarasi. Iasi, Romania, late June 1941.
Romanian soldiers supervise the deportation of Jews from Kishinev. Kishinev, Bessarabia, Romania, October 28, 1941.
Ustaša (Croatian fascist) soldiers oversee the deportation of a group of civilians from Kozara region to a concentration camp, in the pro-German fascist state of Croatia established following the partition of Yugoslavia. Croatia, between 1941 and 1944.
Ustasa (Croatian fascist) soldiers prepare to kill a victim with a dagger and bayonet. Yugoslavia, between 1941 and 1944.
Ustasa (Croatian fascist) camp guards order a Jewish man to remove his ring before being shot. Jasenovac concentration camp, Yugoslavia, between 1941 and 1945.
Children sit and sleep on the floor at Sisak, a Ustasa (Croatian fascist) concentration camp for children. Yugoslavia, during World War II.
Victims of Ustasa (Croatian fascist) atrocities: the bodies of Jasenovac prisoners floating in the Sava River. Between August 1941 and April 1945.
Vidkun Quisling, leader of the collaborationist Norwegian government, returns a salute during a ceremony in Oslo. Norway, after April 1940.
We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing
work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
View the list of all donors.