Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics
Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically
Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust
Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust
Under SA guard, a group of leading Socialists arrives at the Kislau camp, one of the early concentration camps. Local Social Democratic party leader Ludwig Marum is fourth from the left in the line of arrivals. Kislau, Germany, May 16, 1933.
Execution site at the Ploetzensee prison. At Ploetzensee, the Nazis executed hundreds of Germans for opposition to Hitler, including many of the participants in the July 20, 1944, plot to kill Hitler. Berlin, Germany, postwar.
Entrance to the Ploetzensee prison. At Ploetzensee, the Nazis executed hundreds of Germans for opposition to Hitler, including many of the participants in the July 20, 1944, plot to kill Hitler. Berlin, Germany, postwar.
Roland Freisler (center), president of the Volk Court (People's Court), gives the Nazi salute at the trial of conspirators in the July 1944 plot to kill Hitler. Under Freisler's leadership, the court condemned thousands of Germans to death. Berlin, Germany, 1944.
Carl Heinrich Langbehn was an attorney who was slated for a possible cabinet seat had the July 1944 attempt on Hitler's life succeeded. He is pictured here on trial before the People's Court in Berlin. Langbehn was executed in the Ploetzensee prison on October 12, 1944.
Eugen Bolz, a member of the Catholic opposition to Hitler, during his trial before the People's Court. He was arrested following the attempt to kill Hitler in July 1944 and was executed at Berlin's Ploetzensee prison on January 23, 1945.
Carl Goerdeler, former mayor of Leipzig and a leader of the July 1944 conspiracy to kill Hitler, stands trial before the People's Court in Berlin. He was condemned and executed at Ploetzensee prison on February 2, 1945. Berlin, Germany, 1944.
Ludwig Beck, one time chief of the Army General Staff. After his resignation in 1938, Beck became the center of the military resistance to Hitler. He was executed in 1944 for his role in the July 1944 attempt to kill Hitler. Germany, date uncertain.
Ernst Thaelmann, leader of the German Communist Party, was detained during a mass arrest of Communists following the fire that virtually destroyed the Reichstag (German parliament) building. Germany, date uncertain.
Xaver Franz Stuetzinger, a member of the Communist Party of Germany, was tortured by the SS at the Dachau concentration camp. He died in May 1935 without divulging his connections. Germany, before May 1935.
We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing
work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
View the list of all donors.