Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics
Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically
Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust
Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust
Timeline of Events
Explore a timeline of events that occurred before, during, and after the Holocaust.
Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Despite Allied naval superiority, German naval forces played an important role in the campaign. This footage shows German naval units sailing towards Norway in rough seas. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic for the German navy, especially the submarine fleet, and safeguarded transports of Swedish iron ore for Germany's war industry.
Germany invaded Norway on April 9, 1940, simultaneously attacking Norway's coastal cities from Narvik in the far north to Oslo in the south. Narvik was the scene of fierce battles between German forces and the Allies, who landed troops by sea in support of the Norwegians. Narvik changed hands several times. However, British, French, and Polish forces were finally withdrawn in June 1940 due to the success of the German campaign in western Europe. German victory in Norway secured access to the North Atlantic for the German navy, especially the submarine fleet, and safeguarded transports of Swedish iron ore for Germany's war industry. Narvik was the only all-weather outlet for Swedish iron ore.
This German newsreel footage shows Vidkun Quisling, leader of the fascist Norwegian Nasjonal Samling party, reviewing his troops. Quisling headed a pro-Nazi puppet regime in Norway during the war.
In Norway in the 1930s, Vidkun Quisling founded a pro-Nazi party called the Fascist National Union Party. When Germany invaded Norway in 1940, Quisling attempted a pro-German coup against the government. He headed a pro-German administration from 1942 to 1945. His betrayal of Norway to Germany has made his name into a label for all collaborators and traitors. After World War II, Norwegian authorities arrested Quisling, and tried and convicted him on charges of treason. He received a death sentence.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
View the list of all donors.