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German children, behind an SS man, watch as religious objects from the Zeven synagogue are set on fire during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"). Zeven, Germany, November 10, 1938.
The synagogue in Oberramstadt (a town in southwestern Germany) burns during Kristallnacht. Oberramstadt, Germany, November 9-10, 1938.
Jewish-owned shop destroyed during Kristallnacht, the "Night of Broken Glass" pogrom. Berlin, Germany, November 1938.
Interior of a synagogue destroyed during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"). Dortmund, Germany, November 1938.
A knitwear store that was emptied and destroyed during the January 21-23 Iron Guard pogrom. Bucharest, Romania, January 1941.
Sephardic synagogue destroyed during the January 21-23 Iron Guard pogrom. Bucharest, Romania, January 1941.
A woman mourns by the coffins of Jews who died in the Kielce pogrom. Poland, July 6, 1946.
Coffins containing bodies of Jews killed in the Kielce pogrom. Poland, July 6, 1946.
The mass violence of the Kielce pogrom drew on an entrenched local history of antisemitism–especially false allegations accusing Jews of using the blood of Christian children for ritual purposes (a charge known as a “blood libel”)–with the intent of discouraging the return of Jewish Holocaust survivors to Poland.