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Frank Liebermann has a conversation with his teddy bear

Holocaust survivor Frank Liebermann has a conversation with his teddy bear. Germany, 1933–35.

On Frank Liebermann’s first day of school in Gleiwitz, Germany, in 1935, he reported to one of the few small classrooms set aside for Jews. After school, he rushed home to avoid antisemitic attacks.

In 1936, it got worse. Anti-Jewish laws now banned Frank from playgrounds and swimming pools.

The family decided it was time to leave and applied for US visas. They were lucky. In October 1938, the Liebermanns boarded a ship bound for the United States.


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  • US Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection

Holocaust survivor Frank Liebermann has a conversation with his teddy bear.

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