<p>Holocaust survivor Frank Liebermann has a conversation with his teddy bear. Germany, 1933–35.</p>
<p>On Frank Liebermann’s first day of school in Gleiwitz, Germany, in 1935, he reported to one of the few small classrooms set aside for Jews. After school, he rushed home to avoid antisemitic attacks.</p>
<p>In 1936, it got worse. <a href="/narrative/7180">Anti-Jewish laws</a> now banned Frank from playgrounds and swimming pools.</p>
<p>The family decided it was time to leave and applied for US visas. They were lucky. In October 1938, the Liebermanns boarded a ship bound for the United States.</p>

teddy bears and toys

To many people, teddy bears and toys are precious mementos or symbols of childhood. Some of these photographs capture snapshots of life before the devastation of war and destruction of communities during the Holocaust. Browse these images to learn about the experiences of children and their families during and after the Holocaust. 

Other images capture the use of toys for indoctrinating youth and spreading Nazi ideology. 

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