Across Germany, students took books by truck, furniture van, even oxcart, and heaped them into pyres on public squares. This image shows members of the SA and students from the University of Frankfurt with oxen pulling manure carts loaded with books deemed "un-German." Frankfurt am Main, Germany, May 10, 1933.
We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.