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As of mid-2022, there were about 27 million refugees. Learn more about these refugees, the violence they face, and the global impact of the refugee crisis.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1945 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, the Holocaust, and liberation and the aftermath of the Holocaust.
A Black Sea port in the southwestern Ukraine, Odessa had a population of nearly 600,000 in 1939. Roughly 180,000 were Jews, about 30 percent of the total. Romanian Occupation On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany and its Axis allies, including Romania, invaded the Soviet Union. In August 1941, Romanian troops set siege to Odessa. The city surrendered on October 16, 1941. At least half of the city's Jewish population had fled Odessa before Axis troops surrounded the city. Between 80,000 and 90,000 Jews remained…
Explore a timeline of key events during 1942 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
Containers of Zyklon B poison gas pellets found at the Majdanek camp after liberation. Poland, after July 22, 1944.
A group of 1,500 Armenian children at a refugee camp of the Near East Relief organization in Alexandroupolis. Greece, 1921–22.
The defendants listen as the prosecution begins introducing documents at the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. November 22, 1945.
Charred remains of corpses near crematoria in the Majdanek camp, after liberation. Poland, after July 22, 1944.
View of watchtower and fence at the Majdanek camp, after liberation. Poland, after July 22, 1944.
After the occupation of Odessa, Ukrainian Jews wait to register. Odessa, Soviet Union, October 22, 1941.
January 27, anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, is designated by the United Nations General Assembly as International Holocaust Remembrance Day (IHRD).
War Refugee Board During World War II, it became increasingly clear to American citizens that Nazi Germany and the other Axis powers were murdering European Jews. In January 1944, Treasury Department staff, led by Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., persuaded President Franklin D. Roosevelt to establish the War Refugee Board. Roosevelt tasked this organization, nominally headed by the Secretaries of State, War, and Treasury, with carrying out an official American policy of rescue and relief.…
Resistance inside Germany Despite the high risk of being caught by police with the help of their many informers, some individuals and groups attempted to resist Nazism even in Germany. Socialists, Communists, trade unionists, and others clandestinely wrote, printed, and distributed anti-Nazi literature. Many of these rebels were arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps. There were many plots to assassinate Hitler during the war. After the important Soviet victory at Stalingrad in early 1943, when…
Photograph taken during the wedding of Ibby Neuman and Max Mandel at the Bad Reichenhall displaced persons' camp. Germany, February 22, 1948.
Jan Karski and General Colin Powell meet during the opening ceremonies of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC, April 22, 1993.
GIs keep low inside a landing craft during an assault across the Rhine at Oberwesel, Germany. March 22, 1945. US Army Signal Corps photograph.
Christoph Probst, a member of the White Rose student opposition group. Probst, arrested and condemned to death by the People's Court, was executed on February 22, 1943.
Aerial view of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice, where the International Military Tribunal tried 22 leading German officials for war crimes. Nuremberg, Germany, November 1945.
A column of refugees in the Soviet Union, following the German invasion of Soviet territory on June 22, 1941. Soviet Union, between 1941 and 1944.
Soviet refugees sit around a fire in a makeshift camp, following the German invasion of Soviet territory on June 22, 1941. Soviet Union, between 1941 and 1944.
German Jews trying to emigrate to Palestine form long lines in front of the Palestine and Orient Travel Agency. Berlin, Germany, January 22, 1939.
German police round up Jews in the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam, blockaded following anti-Nazi violence. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, February 22, 1941.
HIAS immigration certificate issued to Manius Notowicz in Munich, Germany. The document states that Notowicz will travel on the Marine Flasher on February 22, 1947, to New York City.
Learn about the role of Theresienstadt in the deportation of German and Austrian Jews to killing sites and killing centers in the east.
Jewish women and children are transported by horse-drawn wagon during a deportation action in the Siedlce ghetto. During the liquidation of the ghetto on August 22-24, 1942, 10,000 Jews were deported to the Treblinka killing center.
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