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  • Jewish Community of Monastir: A Community in Flux

    Article

    The Sephardic Jewish community of Monastir was historically the largest Jewish community in Macedonia. Learn about the community before and during WWII and the Holocaust.

    Jewish Community of Monastir: A Community in Flux
  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #4: The Pohl Case

    Article

    The Pohl Case was Case #4 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #4: The Pohl Case
  • Debate within the Lokacze Ghetto

    Article

    Difficult debates took place within ghettos about whether and how to resist under the most adverse conditions. Read a rare account from the Lokacze ghetto.

  • Eden Dance Palace Shooting

    Timeline Event

    November 22, 1930. On this date, Nazis attack a leftwing group at a dance hall in Berlin.

  • Drancy

    Article

    The Germans established an internment camp at Drancy in August 1941. The following summer, Drancy became the main transit camp for deportations of Jews from France.

    Drancy
  • Samuel Gruber

    Article

    Learn more about Samuel (Munyo) Gruber’s life before and during World War II.

  • Trawniki: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in the history of the Trawniki in German-occupied Poland.

    Trawniki: Key Dates
  • Youth Camps

    Article

    Moringen, Uckermark, and Litzmannstadt were reform camps established to confine young people who were deemed to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals. Learn more

    Youth Camps
  • The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"

    Article

    The Wannsee Conference was a high-level meeting of Nazi Party and German State officials to coordinate “the Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Learn more.

    The Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"
  • At the Killing Centers

    Article

    The Nazis established killing centers in German-occupied Europe to mass murder Jews. Learn more about what happened to Jewish people at these killing centers.

    At the Killing Centers
  • Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya

    Article

    Learn more about the Western Desert campaign during World War II in Egypt and Libya between 1940-1943.

    Western Desert Campaign: Egypt and Libya
  • Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates

    Article

    Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from 1929 until 1945. Learn more about key dates in the life of Heinrich Himmler.

    Heinrich Himmler: Key Dates
  • World War II: In Depth

    Article

    Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.

    Tags: World War II
    World War II: In Depth
  • Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime

    Article

    Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.

    Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime
  • Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes receiving her first set of false papers

    Oral History

    In 1933 Barbara's family moved to Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. They became friends of Anne Frank and her family. The Germans invaded the Netherlands in 1940. Barbara's boyfriend, Manfred, had underground contacts and she got false papers. Her mother, sister, and father were deported to Westerbork and then to Auschwitz. Barbara survived using her false papers and worked for the resistance. She helped take Jews to hiding places and also hid Jews in an apartment held in her false name.

    Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes receiving her first set of false papers
  • Freiberg

    Article

    Learn about the Freiburg subcamp of Flossenbürg, including its establishment, prisoner population, and conditions there.

  • Berga-Elster ("Schwalbe V")

    Article

    At the Berga-Elster subcamp of Buchenwald, prisoners were forced to do dangerous and brutal work in tunnels to support fuel production for the German war effort.

    Berga-Elster ("Schwalbe V")
  • Nuremberg Trial: Göring testifies

    Film

    Hermann Göring was head of the German air force. He was one of 22 major war criminals tried by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Here, Göring testifies about his order of July 31, 1941, authorizing Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reich Security Main Office, to plan a so-called "solution to the Jewish question in Europe." The Tribunal found Göring guilty on all counts and sentenced him to death. Göring committed suicide shortly before his execution was to take place.

    Nuremberg Trial: Göring testifies
  • Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy

    Document

    Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy stating that Anna Gutman (Boros) married an Egyptian man in a ceremony held in Helmy’s home. Dr. Helmy also received certification from the Central Islamic Institute in Berlin attesting to Anna’s conversion to Islam, which the marriage certificate reflects. Translation: Marriage certificate On Wednesday June 16, 1943, we have certified the marriage contract between Abdelaziz Helmy Hammad, 36 years old, who was born on May 6th, 1906, in Faqous,…

    Tags: rescue
    Marriage certificate obtained by Dr. Mohamed Helmy
  • Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding

    Artifact

    These tiny black, white, gold, and clear glass beads were used by Rachel “Chelly” de Groot from November 1942 to April 1944 and recovered by her brother Louis after the war. Chelly used the beads to make handicrafts. On November 16, 1942, Chelly, then 15, Louis, 13, and their parents Meijer and Sophia left Arnhem and went into hiding after the Dutch police warned them of a raid. Meijer and Sophia hid in Amsterdam while Chelly and Louis moved around to different locations. In summer or fall 1943,…

    Beads used by a Dutch Jewish girl in hiding
  • Elka Rosenstein

    ID Card

    Elka was raised in a large, Yiddish-speaking Jewish family in Sokolow Podlaski, a manufacturing town in central Poland with a large Jewish population of some 5,000. Elka was 14 when she graduated from middle school. After completing her schooling, she became a tailor. Working at home, she made clothes for different clothiers in town. 1933-39: Elka was unmarried and living with her parents when war between Germany and Poland broke out on September 1, 1939. German aircraft bombed Sokolow Podlaski's market…

    Elka Rosenstein
  • Sally Izikowitz

    ID Card

    Sally was an only son born to Jewish parents in the Baltic port of Liepaja. When Sally was a child, his family moved to Aizpute, a small town 25 miles northeast of Liepaja. There his parents, along with a partner, opened a dry-goods store. Sally attended a German-language private Jewish school in Aizpute. 1933-39: The Izikowitz's store was well-known in the city. People purchased fabric there to be made into clothes or furniture coverings. In 1939 Sally graduated secondary school. Germany invaded Poland…

    Tags: Latvia
    Sally Izikowitz
  • Mendel Grynberg

    ID Card

    Mendel was raised in a large, Yiddish-speaking, religious Jewish family in Sokolow Podlaski, a manufacturing town in central Poland with a large Jewish population of about 5,000. Upon completing school, Mendel worked as a shoemaker. He was also active in a local Zionist organization. 1933-39: Mendel was married and had a family when the Germans invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Aircraft bombed the town's market and other civilian targets before victorious German troops marched into Sokolow Podlaski on…

    Mendel Grynberg
  • Benjamin Soep

    ID Card

    Benjamin, called "Benno" by his family and friends, grew up in a religious Jewish household in Amsterdam. Benno's father, a successful diamond manufacturer, was president of the Amsterdam Jewish community. Benno had two younger sisters and enjoyed collecting stamps. 1933-39: After he obtained some work experience in a department store, Benno joined his father in the diamond business. Benno adhered strictly to Jewish law. He loved tennis and skiing, and in 1938, while skiing in Switzerland, he met a girl…

    Benjamin Soep
  • Channah Mazansky-Zaidel

    ID Card

    Channah was one of six children born to a Jewish family. In 1914, a year after her father died, the family fled during World War I to Russia. After the war they returned to Lithuania and settled in the village of Pampenai in a house owned by Channah's grandparents. When Channah's three oldest siblings moved to South Africa in the 1920s, Channah helped support the family by sewing. 1933-39: Channah was working as a seamstress in Pampenai when, in the mid 1930s, she met and married Channoch Zaidel. The…

    Channah Mazansky-Zaidel

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