View an animated map describing the voyage of the St. Louis and the fate of its passengers, Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany in May-June, 1939.
Martin Niemöller Martin Niemöller (1892–1984) was a prominent Protestant pastor who emerged as an outspoken public foe of Adolf Hitler and spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps, despite his ardent nationalism. Niemöller is perhaps best remembered for the quotation: “First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out...” The son of Lutheran pastor Heinrich Niemöller, Martin Niemöller was born in the Westphalian town of Lippstadt, Germany, on January 14, 1892.…
On November 9–10, 1938, the Nazi regime coordinated a wave of antisemitic violence. This became known as Kristallnacht or the "Night of Broken Glass." Learn more
Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and the radicalization of Nazi anti-Jewish policies triggered a mass exodus. Learn about the US and the refugee crisis of 1938–41.
Why did the United States go to war? What did Americans know about the “Final Solution”? How did Americans respond to news about the Holocaust? Learn more.
Survivors in a barracks at the Wöbbelin concentration camp. Germany, May 4–5, 1945.
Mauthausen concentration camp inmates with American troops after the liberation of the camp.
Corpses of victims of the Gunskirchen subcamp of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Austria, after May 5, 1945.
Purim portrait of a kindergarten class at the Reali Hebrew gymnasium. Kovno, Lithuania, March 5, 1939.
A Syrian girl looks over the Domiz refugee camp outside Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan. Sepember 5, 2015.
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