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  • Thomas Buergenthal describes operations of international tribunals

    Oral History

    Judge Thomas Buergenthal was one of the youngest survivors of the Auschwitz and Sachsenhausen concentration camps. He immigrated to the United States at the age of 17. Judge Buergenthal devoted his life to international and human rights law. He served as chairman of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s Committee on Conscience; was named the Lobingier Professor of Comparative Law and Jurisprudence at the George Washington University Law School; and served for a decade as the American judge at…

    Thomas Buergenthal describes operations of international tribunals
  • Sophie Turner-Zaretsky describes moving to London after liberation and discovering her Jewish heritage

    Oral History

    Sophie was born Selma Schwarzwald to parents Daniel and Laura in the industrial city of Lvov, two years before Germany invaded Poland. Daniel was a successful businessman who exported timber and Laura had studied economics. The Germans occupied Lvov in 1941. After her father's disappearance on her fifth birthday in 1941, Sophie and her mother procured false names and papers and moved to a small town called Busko-Zdroj. They became practicing Catholics to hide their identities. Sophie gradually forgot that…

    Sophie Turner-Zaretsky describes moving to London after liberation and discovering her Jewish heritage
  • Aron (Dereczynski) Derman describes events that took place upon the German invasion of Slonim, Poland

    Oral History

    Aron was born to a middle-class Jewish family in Slonim, a part of Poland between the two world wars. His parents owned a clothing store. After studying in a technical school, Aron worked as a motion-picture projectionist in a small town near Slonim. The Soviet army took over Slonim in September 1939. War broke out between Germany and the Soviet Union in June 1941. Aron returned to Slonim. The Germans soon occupied Slonim, and later forced the Jews into a ghetto. Aron was forced to work in an armaments…

    Aron (Dereczynski) Derman describes events that took place upon the German invasion of Slonim, Poland
  • Charlene Schiff describes difficulties in gaining entry to the United States in the aftermath of the Holocaust

    Oral History

    Both of Charlene's parents were local Jewish community leaders, and the family was active in community life. Charlene's father was a professor of philosophy at the State University of Lvov. World War II began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. Charlene's town was in the part of eastern Poland occupied by the Soviet Union under the German-Soviet Pact of August 1939. Under the Soviet occupation, the family remained in its home and Charlene's father continued to teach. The Germans…

    Charlene Schiff describes difficulties in gaining entry to the United States in the aftermath of the Holocaust
  • Brigitte Friedmann Altman describes a roundup of children in the Kovno ghetto in March 1944

    Oral History

    World War II began in September 1939. Brigitte and her family moved to Kovno, hoping to secure visas and passports for travel to North America. In July 1941, Brigitte and her family were forced to move into the Kovno ghetto after the Germans occupied Lithuania. Brigitte's family survived the "Great Action," but her mother died of illness in the ghetto. After a roundup targeting children in March 1944, Brigitte escaped from the ghetto with the help of a former employee of her father. Soviet forces liberated…

    Tags: ghettos Kovno
    Brigitte Friedmann Altman describes a roundup of children in the Kovno ghetto in March 1944
  • Miriam Peleg describes why she joined Żegota

    Oral History

    Miriam Peleg (1913–1996) was a member of the Council for Aid to Jews, codenamed “Żegota.” Żegota was a clandestine rescue organization of Poles and Jews in German-occupied Poland. Supported by the Polish government-in-exile, Żegota coordinated efforts to save Jews from Nazi persecution and murder. It operated from 1942 to 1945. Born Maria Hochberg, Miriam was from a Polish-Jewish family. She grew up in a small town about 70 miles east of Kraków. As early as the summer of 1940, Miriam obtained…

    Miriam Peleg describes why she joined Żegota
  • Treblinka

    Article

    Treblinka was one of three killing centers in Operation Reinhard, the SS plan to murder almost two million Jews living in the German-administered territory of occupied Poland.

    Treblinka
  • Columbia-Haus

    Article

    The Columbia-Haus camp was one of the early camps established by the Nazi regime. It held primarily political detainees. Learn more about the history of the camp.

  • Irene Hizme and Rene Slotkin describe medical experiments

    Oral History

    Irene Hizme and Rene Slotkin, Jewish twins born in 1937 in Czechoslovakia, were deported with their mother to Theresienstadt, then Auschwitz. They describe the medical experiments to which they were subjected. Benno Müller-Hill, professor of genetics, University of Cologne, comments on Nazi medical experiments. Simon Rosenkier, a Polish Jew who was deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, describes medical experiments at Auschwitz. [Photo credits: Getty Images, New York City; Yad Vashem, Jerusalem;…

    Irene Hizme and Rene Slotkin describe medical experiments
  • What conditions, ideologies, and ideas made the Holocaust possible?

    Discussion Question

    The leaders of Nazi Germany, a modern, educated society, aimed to destroy millions of men, women, and children because of their Jewish identity. Understanding this process may help us to better understand the condit...

    What conditions, ideologies, and ideas made the Holocaust possible?

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