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  • Budy: An Auschwitz Subcamp

    Article

    Budy was one of more than 40 subcamps that the SS administered as part of the Auschwitz camp complex. Learn more.

  • Liberation of Dachau

    Film

    The Dachau concentration camp, northwest of Munich, Germany, was the first regular concentration camp the Nazis established in 1933. About twelve years later, on April 29, 1945, US armed forces liberated the camp. There were about 30,000 starving prisoners in the camp at the time. Here, soldiers of the US Seventh Army document conditions in the camp. They also require German civilians to tour the camp and confront Nazi atrocities.

    Liberation of Dachau
  • US soldiers care for Dachau survivors

    Film

    The Dachau concentration camp, northwest of Munich, Germany, was the first regular concentration camp the Nazis established in 1933. About twelve years later, on April 29, 1945, US armed forces liberated the camp. There were some 30,000 starving prisoners in the camp at that time. In this footage, soldiers of the US Seventh Army feed and disinfect survivors of the camp.

    US soldiers care for Dachau survivors
  • US military chiefs visit displaced persons camp

    Film

    In this footage, General Dwight Eisenhower, General George Patton, and Major General Lewis Craig inspect conditions at the Feldafing displaced persons camp near Wolfratshausen, Germany. Feldafing was one of the first displaced persons camps to house primarily Jewish refugees. In August 1945, Eisenhower ordered that Feldafing be used as a model for the establishment of other camps for Jewish displaced persons in the US occupation zones of Germany and Austria.

    US military chiefs visit displaced persons camp
  • "The Nazi Plan": Antisemitic Campaign

    Film

    [This video is silent] The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage is titled "Opening of the Official Anti-Semitic Campaign 1 April 1933."

    "The Nazi Plan": Antisemitic Campaign
  • "The Nazi Plan": Book Burning

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage is titled "The Burning of the Books, 10 May 1933."

    "The Nazi Plan": Book Burning
  • "The Nazi Plan": Seventh Party Congress, 1935

    Film

    The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. In this footage titled "Seventh Party Congress 10–16 September 1935," Hermann Göring announces restrictive racial laws.

    "The Nazi Plan": Seventh Party Congress, 1935
  • Chart of Prisoner Markings

    Artifact

    A chart of prisoner markings used in German concentration camps. Dachau, Germany, ca. 1938–1942. Beginning in 1937–1938, the SS created a system of marking prisoners in concentration camps. Sewn onto uniforms, the color-coded badges identified the reason for an individual’s incarceration, with some variation among camps. The Nazis used this chart illustrating prisoner markings in the Dachau concentration camp.  

    Chart of Prisoner Markings
  • Hartheim Register

    Artifact

    One of the primary documents used to calculate the number of deaths in the Nazi "euthanasia" program is this register discovered in a locked filing cabinet by US Army troops in 1945 at a killing site in Hartheim, Austria. The right page details by month the number of patients who were "disinfected" in 1940. The final column indicates that 35,224 persons had been put to death that year.

    Hartheim Register
  • US Ratifies Genocide Convention

    Timeline Event

    November 5, 1988. On this date, the US ratified the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide.

    US Ratifies Genocide Convention
  • Election poster

    Photo

    Poster: "Greater Germany: Yes on 10 April" (1938). This election poster emphasizes the message of jumping on the Nazi political bandwagon, as represented by the hands raised in a unified Nazi salute. Nazi propaganda frequently stressed the power of a mass movement to propel the country forward, subtly underscored by the upward angle of the hands. This poster typifies the propaganda strategy of using simple confident slogans, with bold graphics often using the characteristic Nazi colors of red, black, and…

    Election poster
  • Prewar photograph of Terese Cohen with her two children

    Photo

    Terese Cohen, a Tunisian Jewish women, poses with her two children, Nadia and Marcel. Immediately after the Allied landings in Algeria and Morocco, the Germans occupied Tunisia. After the occupation, an SS officer came to the Cohen's house and confiscated everything leaving only the table and chairs for the Germans to use. They gave the family 24 hours to pack and leave and then expropriated the home to use as a barracks for soldiers.

    Prewar photograph of Terese Cohen with her two children
  • US Army unit at Camp Ritchie

    Photo

    Otto Perl poses with his US Army unit at Camp Ritchie, Maryland, circa 1945. Born in Austria, Perl served in the Austrian Army until March 1938, when he was dismissed because he was Jewish. With the help of a friend, Perl was able to obtain a US visa. He reached New York in 1940.  Several thousand of the soldiers who trained at Camp Ritchie were Jewish refugees who had immigrated to the United States to escape Nazi persecution.   

    US Army unit at Camp Ritchie
  • Funeral service for victims of a death march

    Photo

    US troops and German civilians from Neunburg vorm Wald attend a funeral service for Polish, Hungarian, and Russian Jews found in the forest near their town. The victims were shot by the SS while on a death march from Flossenbürg. Neunburg, Germany, April 29, 1945. Following the discovery of death march victims, US Army officers forced local Germans to view the scene of the crime and ordered the townspeople to give the victims a proper burial.

    Funeral service for victims of a death march
  • Breckinridge Long (1881–1958)

    Photo

    Breckinridge Long (1881–1958). Long was an Assistant Secretary in the US State Department during World War II, from 1940-1944. Between 1939 and 1942, Breckinridge Long implemented new State Department policies which prioritized US national security over humanitarian concerns. Photograph taken in Washington, DC, United States, August 1943.

    Breckinridge Long (1881–1958)
  • Siege (1940)

    Article

    Julien Bryan’s ten-minute film Siege, first non-Nazi produced footage of the start of WWII, records horror and chaos in Warsaw following the German invasion.

    Siege (1940)
  • Thomas Mann

    Article

    Thomas Mann was a German author who won the Nobel Prize for Literature. His political writings were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.

    Thomas Mann
  • Ernst Gläser

    Article

    Ernst Gläser wrote the antiwar novel "Jahrgang 1902." His works, considered leftist and anti-fascist, were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.

  • Brihah

    Article

    Brihah was a postwar, clandestine movement that helped Jews emigrate from eastern Europe into the Allied-occupied zones and Palestine or Israel. Learn more.

    Brihah
  • The 4th Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 4th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Haunstetten subcamp of Dachau.

  • Capture of the Bridge at Remagen

    Article

    Capturing the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen was a major milestone for US forces in WWII, allowing the Allies to move troops and tanks across the Rhine river. Learn more.

    Capture of the Bridge at Remagen
  • World War II Liberation Photography: Learning about Photographs You May Have in your Home

    Article

    Many extremely graphic photographs taken at the time of liberation document crimes of the Nazi era. Learn about some of the most commonly reproduced photos.

    World War II Liberation Photography: Learning about Photographs You May Have in your Home
  • "We will show you their own films": Film at the Nuremberg Trial

    Article

    Nazi Germany’s dedicated filming of itself became evidence of its crimes and was displayed at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Learn more.

    "We will show you their own films": Film at the Nuremberg Trial
  • Reversal of Fortune: Robert Kempner

    Article

    Lawyer Robert Kempner was expelled from Germany in 1935. After WWII, he would return to serve as assistant US chief counsel during the IMT at Nuremberg.

    Reversal of Fortune: Robert Kempner
  • Flag graphic for US 103rd Infantry Division

    Photo

    A digital representation of the United States 103rd Infantry Division flag.   The US 103rd Infantry Division (the "Cactus" division) was established in 1942. During World War II, they were involved in the Battle of the Bulge and captured the city of Innsbruck. The division also uncovered a Nazi subcamp attached to Kaufering camp complex. The 103rd Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit in 1985 by the US Army's Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum…

    Flag graphic for US 103rd Infantry Division

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