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The 45th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.
Fritzie's father immigrated to the United States, but by the time he could bring his family over, war had begun and Fritzie's mother feared attacks on transatlantic shipping. Fritzie, her mother, and two brothers were eventually sent to Auschwitz. Her mother and brothers died. Fritzie survived by pretending to be older than her age and thus a stronger worker. On a death march from Auschwitz, Fritzie ran into a forest, where she was later liberated.
Explore Manya Friedmann’s biography and listen to her describe her experiences following the liberation of Auschwitz.
John Demjanjuk, initially convicted as “Ivan the Terrible,” was tried for war crimes committed as a collaborator of the Nazi regime during the Holocaust.
The Nazis used poisonous gas to murder millions of people in gas vans or stationary gas chambers. The vast majority of those killed by gassing were Jews.
The 84th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two Neuengamme subcamps, Hannover-Ahlem and Salzwedel, in 1945.
How did the United States respond to the Holocaust and World War II? Start learning today.
Supply ships reinforce US forces on the Philippine island of Leyte during the US invasion of the Philippines. 1944.
April 4, 1945. On this date, US troops liberated Ohrdruf, a subcamp of Buchenwald concentration camp.
The 1st Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating two subcamps of Flossenbürg in 1945.
Nazi Germany’s territorial expansion and the radicalization of Nazi anti-Jewish policies triggered a mass exodus. Learn about the US and the refugee crisis of 1938–41.
Why did the United States go to war? What did Americans know about the “Final Solution”? How did Americans respond to news about the Holocaust? Learn more.
In 1942, Hana was confined with other Jews to the Theresienstadt ghetto, where she worked as a nurse. There, amid epidemics and poverty, residents held operas, debates, and poetry readings. In 1944, she was deported to Auschwitz. After a month there, she was sent to Sackisch, a Gross-Rosen subcamp, where she made airplane parts at forced labor. She was liberated in May 1945.
Beatrice's family lost their textile business and home when the Nazis barred Jews from owning property. The family was deported to camps. Beatrice, her sister, and their mother were sent to Gurs. The Children's Aid Society (OSE) later placed the girls in homes and convents, where they feared Allied bomb attacks, but escaped the horrors of camp life. Their parents perished.
The War Refugee Board was a significant US attempt to rescue and relieve Jews and other endangered people under German occupation. Learn about its activities.
Describes assistance from the Red Cross at the end of the war
Explore Erika Eckstut's biography and learn about the difficulties and dangers she faced in the Czernowitz ghetto.
Martin Weiss and his family were deported to Auschwitz in 1944. Explore Marty’s biography and his description of arrival in Auschwitz.
April 23, 1945. On this date, US forces liberated the Flossenbürg camp in Germany.
Learn about the voyages of the ships Orduña, Flandre, and Orinoco in May 1939, carrying Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany and seeking safety in Cuba.
The Decree against Public Enemies was a key step in the process by which the Nazi leadership moved Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship.
Earl G. Harrison, Commissioner for Immigration and Naturalization under FDR, is known for a report harshly criticizing the US and British treatment of Jewish DPs.
Nazi propaganda had a key role in the persecution of Jews. Learn more about how Hitler and the Nazi Party used propaganda to facilitate war and genocide.
Ben Ferencz investigated and prosecuted Nazi crimes and devoted his career to creating an international system of justice. Learn about his activities and impact.
Prosecutors before the IMT based the case against 22 leading Nazi officials primarily on thousands of documents written by the Germans themselves. Learn more.
When WWII began, most Americans wanted the US to stay isolated from the war. From December 1941, the majority rallied in support of intervention to defeat the Axis powers.
The Buchenwald camp was one of the largest concentration camps. The Nazis built it in 1937 in a wooded area northwest of Weimar in central Germany. US forces liberated the Buchenwald camp on April 11, 1945. When US troops entered the camp, they found more than 20,000 prisoners. This footage shows scenes that US cameramen filmed in the camp, survivors, and the arrival of Red Cross trucks.
The film "The Nazi Plan" was shown as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg on December 11, 1945. It was compiled for the trial by Budd Schulberg and other US military personnel, under the supervision of Navy Commander James Donovan. The compilers used only German source material, including official newsreels. This footage titled "Conferences After Hitler's Escape from Bombing Plot, 20 July 1944" was used by Nuremberg prosecutors to show that the IMT defendants were among Hitler's…
How did the United States respond to the rise of the Nazis in 1930s Germany? What did the US government know about the Nazi persecution of Jews and the “Final Solution”? Learn more
US Chief Prosecuter Robert H. Jackson, pictured at the time of the International Military Tribunal (1945–1946). In 1941, Jackson had been appointed to the US Supreme Court. Justice Jackson took a leave of absence from the court in 1945 to serve as chief US war crimes prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials of former German leaders. He returned to the Supreme Court in 1946.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Babenhausen DP camp.
Sholem Asch was a Yiddish dramatist and novelist. He depicted small town Jewish life and socialist themes. His work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
In 1941, the Nazis established Janowska camp. It was primarily used as a forced-labor and transit camp.
The 95th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Werl, a prison and civilian labor camp, in 1945.
The 8th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Halberstadt-Zwieberge subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.
The 20th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.
The 29th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Dinslaken, a civilian labor camp, in 1945.
Encircling the Ruhr region was a key Allied military goal. Learn about the military campaign to capture the industrial center of western Germany in the last months of WWII.
From 1945 to 1947, the US Army tried a variety of officials, camp personnel, and German civilians accused of war crimes and mass atrocities against Allied civilians and prisoners of war.
Learn more about the 1943 Tunisia campaign, a four-month long struggle between Allied and Axis powers in North Africa during World War II.
In 1938, Martin's father was imprisoned during Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"). Upon the intervention of the family's chauffeur, a gentile, Martin's father was released after three days. The family obtained visas to immigrate to Palestine and left Germany in 1939. Martin aided "illegal" immigrants who defied British restrictions on immigration into Palestine. He was imprisoned by the British in 1947 and forbidden to live in Palestine. He then came to the United States.
The Germans invaded Poland in September 1939. When Makow was occupied, Sam fled to Soviet territory. He returned to Makow for provisions, but was forced to remain in the ghetto. In 1942, he was deported to Auschwitz. As the Soviet army advanced in 1944, Sam and other prisoners were sent to camps in Germany. The inmates were put on a death march early in 1945. American forces liberated Sam after he escaped during a bombing raid.
The Germans occupied Vilna in June 1941. In October, Rochelle and her family were confined to the Vilna ghetto, where her mother died. Her father, a Jewish council member, was killed in a camp in Estonia. When the ghetto was liquidated in 1943, Rochelle and her sister were deported--first to the Kaiserwald camp in Latvia and later to Stutthof, near Danzig. In 1945, on the sixth week of a death march that forced the sisters to protect their bare feet with rags, the Soviet army liberated them.
Like other Jews, the Lewents were confined to the Warsaw ghetto. In 1942, as Abraham hid in a crawl space, the Germans seized his mother and sisters in a raid. They perished. He was deployed for forced labor nearby, but escaped to return to his father in the ghetto. In 1943, the two were deported to Majdanek, where Abraham's father died. Abraham later was sent to Skarzysko, Buchenwald, Schlieben, Bisingen, and Dachau. US troops liberated Abraham as the Germans evacuated prisoners.
Auschwitz was the largest camp established by the Germans. It was a complex of camps, including a concentration camp, killing center, and forced-labor camp.
Eleanor Roosevelt, longest serving First Lady in US history, used her social and political influence to intervene on behalf of refugees before and during WWII.
Key dates in the use of the term genocide as part of the political, legal, and ethical vocabulary of responding to widespread threats of violence against groups.
US forces liberated the Dora-Mittelbau (Nordhausen) concentration camp in April 1945. Here, medics and soldiers of the US 3rd Armored Division evacuate sick and dying survivors of the camp.
Aluminum food container lid used by a Hungarian Jewish family on the Kasztner train. The family had used the container on outings outside Budapest. It later accompanied them to Bergen-Belsen, Switzerland and, finally, to the United States.
A Dutch survivor of the Ohrdruf camp shows the camp's gallows, which the Germans used to execute prisoners, to US forces (including Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton). Germany, April 12, 1945.
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