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The [Oath of Loyalty for All State Officials] was one of a series of key decree...
The Röhm Purge (the “Night of the Long Knives") was the murder of the leadership of the SA (Storm Troopers), the Nazi paramilitary formation led by Ernst Röhm. Learn more.
Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about WWII and genocide in Europe.
The Nazi Party Platform was a 25-point program for the creation of a Nazi state and society. Hitler presented it at the Hofbräuhaus Beerhall in Munich in February 1920.
World War II was the largest and most destructive conflict in history. Learn about key WWII dates in this timeline of events, including when WW2 started and ended.
Setty and Moritz Sondheimer and their two children fled Nazi Germany for Kovno, Lithuania, in 1934. There, Moritz opened a small factory manufacturing buttons and combs. This image shows page 2, containing an identification photograph, of a passport issued to Setty Sondheimer by the German Consulate in Kovno on January 29, 1938. With aid from Japanese diplomat Chiune Sugihara in obtaining Japanese transit visas, Setty and her family emigrated from Kovno in February 1941. [From the USHMM special exhibition…
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1936.
The Law against the Founding of New Parties proclaimed the Nazi Party as the only political party in Germany, which became a one-party dictatorship led by the Nazis.
Approximately 42,000 Jews were killed during Operation "Erntefest," which began at dawn on November
“Fire Oaths” were statements that declared why the works of certain authors were thrown into the flames during the 1933 burning of books under the Nazi regime.
The 10th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Dachau in 1945.
Vastly outgunned and outnumbered, some Jews in ghettos and camps resisted the Germans with for...
The Medical Case, or Doctors Trial, was Case #1 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
American military tribunals presided over 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
October 29, 1941. On this date, German SS and police and Lithuanian police murdered 9,200 residents of the Kovno ghetto in Fort IX, Lithuania.
July 23, 1942. On this date, gassing operations began at the Treblinka killing center.
September 2, 1945. On this date, Japan signed their surrender aboard the USS Missouri and ended World War II.
November 8, 1994. On this date, the United Nations established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ITCR) in Arusha, Tanzania.
Anna Seghers was an influential, antifascist author. Her novel, in which she spoke out against social injustice, was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
The presentation of evidence about defendant Ernst Kaltenbrunner at the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. Germany, January 2, 1946. Ernst Kaltenbrunner (1903–1946) was Chief of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) and later Chief of the Security Police. In this second position, Kaltenbrunner controlled the Gestapo (German Secret State Police), Criminal Police, and Security Service (SD). He was a prime figure in the “Final Solution” in the last years of the war.
Two young brothers, seated for a family photograph in the Kovno ghetto. One month later, they were deported to the Majdanek camp. Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944. Pictured are Avram (5 years) and Emanuel Rosenthal (2 years). Emanuel was born in the Kovno ghetto. The children, who were deported in the March 1944 "Children's Action," did not survive. Their uncle, Shraga Wainer, who had asked George Kadish to take this photograph, received a copy of it from the photographer after the war in the Landsberg…
Gertruda Nowak was born to a Roman Catholic family in Poland. The Germans invaded her country on September 1, 1939. Gertruda's father was later accused of working for the Polish underground and taken away. The Germans then came for the rest of the...
Trials of top surviving German leaders for Nazi Germany’s crimes began in Nuremberg after World War II. Read about the Nuremberg trials.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1939 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1945 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, the Holocaust, and liberation and the aftermath of the Holocaust.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.