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  • Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Arab Nationalist and Muslim Leader

    Article

    Hajj Amin al-Husayni claimed to speak for the Arab nation and the Muslim world and sought an alliance with the Axis powers during WWII. Learn more about his actions

    Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Arab Nationalist and Muslim Leader
  • African Americans in Nazi Germany

    Article

    Learn about African Americans' experiences in Nazi Germany before and during World War II.

    African Americans in Nazi Germany
  • Mass Shootings of Jews during the Holocaust

    Article

    Almost one third of the six million Holocaust victims were murdered in mass shootings.

    Mass Shootings of Jews during the Holocaust
  • Sandor (Shony) Alex Braun describes playing the violin for SS guards in Dachau. after two prisoners before him had been killed

    Oral History

    Shony was born to religious Jewish parents in a small Transylvanian city. He began to learn the violin at age 5. His town was occupied by Hungary in 1940 and by Germany in 1944. In May 1944, he was deported to the Auschwitz camp in Poland. He was transferred to the Natzweiler camp system in France and then to Dachau, where he was liberated by US troops in April 1945. In 1950, he immigrated to the United States, and became a composer and a professional violinist.

    Tags: music Dachau
    Sandor (Shony) Alex Braun describes playing the violin for SS guards in Dachau. after two prisoners before him had been killed
  • Abraham Bomba describes the Treblinka gas chambers

    Oral History

    Excerpt from Holocaust survivor Abraham Bomba's oral history testimony describing gas chambers at the Treblinka killing center.

    Abraham Bomba describes the Treblinka gas chambers
  • Lachwa

    Article

    The Lachwa ghetto was established in Łachwa, Poland in April, 1942. Learn more about the ghetto and uprising.

    Lachwa
  • Zdziecioł (Zhetel)

    Article

    The Nazis occupied Zdziecioł (Zhetel), Poland in 1941. Learn more about the city and ghetto during World War II.

  • The Holocaust in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry

    Article

    In March 1943, Bulgarian authorities transported the entire Jewish community of Monastir to a transit camp from which they were deported to Treblinka.

    The Holocaust in Macedonia: Deportation of Monastir Jewry
  • 1942: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during 1942 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1942: Key Dates
  • Uckermark Youth Camp

    Article

    The Uckermark camp was one of the so-called youth protection camps that the Nazi regime established for young people who were alleged to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals.

    Tags: youth camps
  • Oranienburg

    Article

    The Oranienburg concentration camp was established as one of the first concentration camps in Nazi Germany on March 21, 1933. Learn more

    Oranienburg
  • Mannschafts-Stammlager (Stalag) IX B

    Article

    In 1939, the Nazis established the Mannschafts-Stammlager (Stalag) IX B camp in Germany. Learn more about the camp’s history, prisoners, and liberation.

  • Rosa Israel Waldhorn

    ID Card

    Rosa was one of 14 children born to religious Jewish parents in the village of Yasinya at a time when it was known as Korosmezo and was part of Hungary. During World War I, she married Michael von Hoppen Waldhorn, an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army who was based near Yasinya. During the 1920s they moved to Paris, where they raised three children. 1933-39: The Waldhorn family's life in Paris was very different from their life in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Rosa's husband made a good living, and he…

    Rosa Israel Waldhorn
  • Robert Kulka

    ID Card

    Robert was the son of Jewish parents, Leopold and Florentina Kulka, and was raised in the Moravian town of Olomouc. After completing secondary school, he attended a business school until 1909. He began a business in Olomouc and in 1933 he married Elsa Skutezka from the Moravian city of Brno. The couple made their home in Olomouc. 1933-39: The Kulkas' son, Tomas, was born a year and a day after they were married. In 1937 Elsa's father passed away and the Kulkas moved to Brno, where Elsa and her husband…

    Robert Kulka
  • Tomas Kulka

    ID Card

    Tomas' parents were Jewish. His father, Robert Kulka, was a businessman from the Moravian town of Olomouc. His mother, Elsa Skutezka, was a milliner from Brno, the capital of Moravia. The couple was well-educated and spoke both Czech and German. They married in 1933 and settled in Robert's hometown of Olomouc. 1933-39: Tomas was born a year and a day after his parents were married. When Tomas was 3, his grandfather passed away and the Kulkas moved to Brno, which was his mother's hometown. On March 15,…

    Tomas Kulka
  • Ossi Stojka

    ID Card

    Ossi was the youngest of six children born to Roma ("Gypsies") who traveled in a family wagon. His family was Roman Catholic. Their caravan spent winters in Vienna, Austria's capital, and summers in the Austrian countryside. The Stojkas belonged to a tribe called the Lowara Roma, who made their living as itinerant horse traders. Ossi's ancestors had lived in Austria for more than 200 years. 1933-39: Ossi was 2 years old when Germany annexed Austria in March 1938. The Stojka family wagon was parked for the…

    Ossi Stojka
  • American propaganda announcement

    Document

    Announcement dropped by American planes on Shanghai near the end of the war. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    American propaganda announcement
  • Gideon Boissevain

    ID Card

    Gideon was known affectionately as "Gi" by his family and friends. His parents were descended from the Huguenots, French Protestants who came to the Netherlands in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gi had two brothers and two sisters, and his father worked in the insurance business. 1933-39: Gi had a large circle of friends, both Christians and Jews, and after school they all liked to get together. He and his friends enjoyed taking bike trips, having parties, and playing records. In the mid-1930s his parents…

    Gideon Boissevain
  • Dismissal letter

    Document

    During the interwar period Dr. Susanne Engelmann served as the principal of a large public high school for girls in Berlin. This letter notified her of her dismissal, as a "non-Aryan," from her teaching position. The dismissal was in compliance with the Civil Service Law of April 7, 1933. On April 7, the German government issued the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums), which excluded Jews and political opponents from all civil…

    Dismissal letter
  • German military court trial of French resistance members

    Film

    France signed an armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940, recognizing the right of German authorities to oversee the French administration. Further, German military authorities held jurisdiction over matters of internal security. In this footage, a German military court in Paris tries French citizens charged with resisting measures of the military occupation. Despite harsh military justice, the Germans could not quell opposition in France, and resistance activities would reach a peak during the Allied…

    German military court trial of French resistance members
  • German forces in Italy surrender to the Allies

    Film

    Allied forces occupied most of Germany by the end of April 1945. German forces fighting in Italy were the first to surrender unconditionally to the Allies. Representatives of the German command in Italy signed the surrender on April 29, and it became effective on May 2, 1945. Five days later, on May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the western Allies, ending the war in Europe.

    German forces in Italy surrender to the Allies
  • Japanese surrender

    Film

    World War II in the Pacific theater ended with the Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945. The surrender was signed in Tokyo Bay aboard the American battleship USS "Missouri." Foreign Minister Shigemitsu headed the Japanese delegation. General Douglas MacArthur accepted the surrender on behalf of the Allies. Admiral Nimitz signed for the US and Admiral Fraser for Britain. Representatives of all the Allied nations attended the signing.

    Japanese surrender
  • US veteran James Rose describes his impressions of Dachau upon liberation

    Oral History

    James A. Rose, of Toledo, Ohio, was with the 42nd (Rainbow) Division.

    US veteran James Rose describes his impressions of Dachau upon liberation
  • The SS

    Article

    The SS (Schutzstaffel) was the elite guard of the Nazi regime and a virtual state within the Third Reich.

    The SS
  • Bergen-Belsen: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of the history of the Bergen-Belsen camp in the Nazi camp system. Initially a POW camp, it became a concentration camp in 1943.

    Bergen-Belsen: Key Dates

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