The Reich Security Main Office (RSHA), created by Heinrich Himmler, brutally coordinated and perpetrated many aspects of the Holocaust.
German women at work in the offices of the German Census Bureau. The board gives directions for tabulation: the center column instructs that number 3 is the indicator to be used for Jews. Germany, 1933.
A pedestrian reads a notice announcing an upcoming public meeting, scheduled for Tuesday, December 3, to urge Americans to boycott the upcoming 1936 Berlin Olympics. New York, United States, 1935.
Young German soldiers assist in the deportation of Jews from the Zychlin ghetto to the Chelmno killing center. The Nazis planned this deportation to fall on the Jewish holiday of Purim. Poland, March 3, 1942.
Passport issued to Lore Oppenheimer, a German Jew, with "J" for "Jude" stamped on the card. "Sara" was added to the names of all German Jewish women. Hildesheim, Germany, July 3, 1939.
Hitler during a triumphal tour of the Sudetenland following the Munich agreement of September 1938. The agreement ceded the largely German-speaking Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. Eger, Czechoslovakia, October 3, 1938.
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (left), US president Franklin D. Roosevelt (center), and British prime minister Winston S. Churchill (right) at the Tehran Conference. Tehran, Iran, between November 28 and December 1, 1943.
Under the Vichy regime, the Les Milles camp held foreign Jews before emigration or, in most cases, deportation to German concentration camps and killing centers.
The Westerbork transit camp, located in the German-occupied Netherlands, served as a temporary collection point for Jews in the Netherlands before deportation.
Behind the number of victims of the Holocaust and Nazi persecution are people whose hopes and dreams were destroyed. Learn about the toll of Nazi policies.
Learn about the establishment of and conditions in Melk, a subcamp of the Mauthausen camp system in Austria.
Shony was born to religious Jewish parents in a small Transylvanian city. He began to learn the violin at age 5. His town was occupied by Hungary in 1940 and by Germany in 1944. In May 1944, he was deported to the Auschwitz camp in Poland. He was transferred to the Natzweiler camp system in France and then to Dachau, where he was liberated by US troops in April 1945. In 1950, he immigrated to the United States, and became a composer and a professional violinist.
The Mir ghetto was established in Mir, Poland in 1941. Learn more about life and resistance in the ghetto.
Approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. This number represented 1.7% of Europe's total population and more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population. By 1945, most European Jews—2 out of every 3—...
Soviet prisoners of war wait for food in Stalag (prison camp) 8C. More than 3 million Soviet soldiers died in German custody, mostly from malnutrition and exposure. Zagan, Poland, February 1942. Second only to the Jews, Soviet prisoners of war were the largest group of victims of Nazi racial policy.
Wedding portrait of former Bielski partisan, Berl Kagan. Emden, Germany, April 3, 1948. Pictured from left to right are Ita Rubin (the bride), her mother, Sarah Rubin, and Berl Kagan. All three were passengers on the Exodus 1947.
Portrait of David Kamchi, son of Masliach Kamchi, and his wife Sara. They lived at Gostivarska 3 in Bitola. This photograph was one of the individual and family portraits of members of the Jewish community of Bitola, Macedonia, used by Bulgarian occupation authorities to register the Jewish population prior to its deportation in March 1943.
Police search a messenger at the entrance to the building where Vorwaerts, a Social-Democratic Party newspaper, was published. The building was subsequently occupied during the suppression of the political left wing in Germany that was carried out in response to the Reichstag Fire. Berlin, Germany, March 3–4, 1933.
German troops marching into the Sudetenland stop at a former Czech frontier post. Nazi officials and Sudeten Germans salute the troops. The sign between the swastikas reads: "One People, One Reich, One Führer." Grottau, Czechoslovakia, October 2 or 3, 1938.
Approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. This number represented 1.7% of Europe's total population and more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population. By 1945, most European Jews—2 out of every...
Learn about conditions and forced labor in Dora-Mittelbau, the center of an extensive network of forced-labor camps for the production of V-2 missiles and other weapons.
In 1940, the Nazis established Lublin (Majdanek) concentration camp in Lublin, Poland. Learn more about camp conditions.
The 1944 Warsaw uprising was the single largest military effort undertaken by resistance forces to oppose German occupation during World War II.
Explore a timeline of the history of the Flossenbürg camp in the Nazi camp system from its establishment in 1938 until liberation in 1945.
Leading German physicians and administrators were put on trial for their role during the Holocaust. The resulting Nuremberg Code was a landmark document on medical ethics. Learn more
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