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  • Identity Card Used in Hiding

    Timeline Event

    August 3, 1943. On this date, Kurt I. Lewin was issued a forged ID card for "Roman-Paul Mytka." He used that identity to survive the war.

    Identity Card Used in Hiding
  • Evidence from the Holocaust at the First Nuremberg Trial


    Prosecutors before the IMT based the case against 22 leading Nazi officials primarily on thousands of documents written by the Germans themselves. Learn more.

    Evidence from the Holocaust at the First Nuremberg Trial
  • Trawniki


    The SS camp at Trawniki in the Lublin District of the General Government existed from July 1941 through July 1944. It underwent four changes of function and purpose in the three years of its existence. Purpose of the Trawniki Camp From July until September 1941, Trawniki served as a holding pen for Soviet civilians and soldiers. From September 1941 until July 1944, it was a training facility for police auxiliaries deployed in Operation Reinhard. From June 1942 until September 1943, it served as a…

  • American Jewish Congress


    The American Jewish Congress led anti-Nazi protest rallies in the 1930s and 1940s. Learn about the AJC's creation, leadership, activities, and rescue efforts.

    American Jewish Congress
  • The Armenian Genocide (1915-16): Overview


    The Armenian genocide is sometimes called the first genocide of the twentieth century.

    The Armenian Genocide (1915-16): Overview
  • Hajj Amin al-Husayni meets Hitler


    In this German propaganda newsreel, the former Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husayni, an Arab nationalist and prominent Muslim religious leader, meets Hitler for the first time. During the meeting, held in in the Reich chancellery, Hitler declined to grant al-Husayni’s request for a public statement--or a secret but formal treaty--in which Germany would: 1) pledge not to occupy Arab land, 2) recognize Arab striving for independence, and 3) support the “removal” of the proposed Jewish…

    Hajj Amin al-Husayni meets Hitler
  • Berlin-Marzahn (camp for Roma)


    The Berlin-Marzahn camp was established a few miles from Berlin's city center, for the detention of Roma, on the eve of the 1936 summer Olympics.

  • Gleichschaltung: Coordinating the Nazi State


    Gleichschaltung is the German term applied to the Nazification of all aspects of German society following the Nazi rise to power in 1933.

    Gleichschaltung: Coordinating the Nazi State
  • Atrocities against Burma's Rohingya Population


    The Burmese military has targeted the Rohingya people because of their ethnic and religious identity. The military’s actions constitute genocide and crimes against humanity. Learn more

    Atrocities against Burma's Rohingya Population
  • Herschel Low

    ID Card

    Herschel was the oldest of four children born to a Jewish family in the Polish town of Ulanow. His father was a landowner and cattle merchant who transported calves from the Ulanow area for sale in other towns. Herschel attended a religious school from the age of 3, and started public school at age 7. 1933-39: Since Herschel was skilled with his hands, his father got him a job weaving reed baskets after he graduated from high school. Herschel was also a member of a Jewish youth organization, Benei Akiva,…

    Herschel Low
  • Pawel Wos

    ID Card

    Pawel, a Roman Catholic, fled to Danzig, Germany, in 1914 to avoid conscription in the Russian army. Since Germany and Russia were at war, Pawel was arrested by the Germans as an enemy alien and sent to work on a farm in northern Germany. He met Anna Szachowska there, and they married in 1918. The couple moved to Warsaw where they raised 4 children. In 1930 Pawel opened a textile business. 1933-39: Despite the Depression, Pawel's business prospered and they expanded their operations. In 1938 some friends…

    Pawel Wos
  • Isadore Frenkiel

    ID Card

    Isadore and his wife, Sossia, had seven sons. The Frenkiels, a religious Jewish family, lived in a one-room apartment in a town near Warsaw called Gabin. Like most Jewish families in Gabin, they lived in the town's center, near the synagogue. Isadore was a self-employed cap maker, selling his caps at the town's weekly market. He also fashioned caps for the police and military. 1933-39: Isadore felt the pinch of the Depression, but although business was poor, he was able to provide for his family. Shortly…

    Tags: Poland Chelmno
    Isadore Frenkiel
  • Sossia Frenkiel

    ID Card

    Sossia and her husband, Isadore, were the parents of seven boys. The Frenkiels, a religious Jewish family, lived in a one-room apartment in a town near Warsaw called Gabin. Like most Jewish families in Gabin, they lived near the synagogue. Sossia cared for the children while Isadore worked as a self-employed cap maker, selling his caps at the town's weekly market. 1933-39: Because of the Depression, Isadore's business had fallen off, but the Frenkiels managed to continue providing for their family.…

    Tags: Poland Chelmno
    Sossia Frenkiel
  • Judith Kalman

    ID Card

    Judith was the only child born to a Jewish couple who lived in Hatvan, a small town 36 miles northeast of Budapest. Judith's father worked in his brother's business, marketing grains and other agricultural products purchased from local farms. When she was 3, Judith gave her first public recitation of poetry, an interest that she pursued throughout her childhood. 1933-39: Judith's family wasn't religious--they were Hungarians who happened to be Jewish, and their family was well-liked in Hatvan. But in the…

    Tags: Hungary
    Judith Kalman
  • Pawel Zenon Wos

    ID Card

    Pawel was the oldest of four children born to Roman Catholic parents in Poland's capital of Warsaw. Pawel's father had worked for the Polish merchant marine before starting his own textile business in 1930. The family moved to a comfortable apartment near the Royal Castle and the Vistula River. Pawel excelled in sports, including basketball and tennis. His favorite sport was rowing. 1933-39: In May 1939 Pawel became an army reserve officer and went to training camp near Augustow. On the morning of…

    Pawel Zenon Wos
  • Selma Wijnberg

    ID Card

    Selma was the youngest of the Wijnberg's four children, and the only daughter. When she was 7, her family left Groningen to start a business in the town of Zwolle [in the Netherlands]. There her parents ran a small hotel popular with Jewish businessmen traveling in the area. Every Friday there was a cattle market, and many of the cattle dealers came to the Wijnberg's hotel for coffee and business. 1933-39: At home Selma and her family were observant of Jewish tradition because her mother was religious.…

    Selma Wijnberg
  • David Klebanov

    ID Card

    Born in the town of Volkovysk when it was part of Russia, David was the son of middle-class Jewish parents. When the family's life was disrupted by World War I and the Russian Revolution of 1917, they moved to Borisov and Kiev before finally settling in the Polish city of Bialystok. After completing secondary school in 1925, David studied medicine at Stefan Bathory University in Vilna. 1933-39: After medical school David served one year in the Polish army. Then he practiced obstetrics at a beautiful…

    Tags: Riga Kovno
    David Klebanov
  • Refugees Today


    As of mid-2022, there were about 27 million refugees. Learn more about these refugees, the violence they face, and the global impact of the refugee crisis.

  • Ravensbrück


    Learn about conditions and the treatment of prisoners in Ravensbrück, the largest concentration camp for women in the German Reich.

  • The Eastern Front: The German War against the Soviet Union


    Nazi Germany and its allies invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. They quickly conquered large expanses of Soviet territory. German forces waged a “war of annihilation” against the Soviet Union and its peoples, killing millions of civilians. However, the Soviet armed forces eventually pushed the German military back and finally conquered Berlin in spring 1945. Often referred to as the “eastern front,” the German-Soviet theater of war was the largest and deadliest of World War II.

    The Eastern Front: The German War against the Soviet Union
  • Theresienstadt: "Retirement Settlement" for German and Austrian Jews


    Before June 1942, Protectorate Jews were the only "residents" of the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. Beginning with a transport of 50 Berlin Jews arriving on June 2, 1942, the German authorities deported German, Austrian, Danziger, Luxembourger, and Sudeten Jews to Theresienstadt. Deportations  In 1942, 47,478 Jews arrived in Theresienstadt from the Greater German Reich (from Germany, 32,878; Austria, 13,922; Luxembourg, 213; Danzig, 110; and the Sudetenland, 355). In 1943, 5,398 Jews arrived in the…

    Theresienstadt: "Retirement Settlement" for German and Austrian Jews
  • Supreme Court Decision on the Nuremberg Race Laws


    The Supreme Court Decision on the Nuremberg Race Laws was one of a series of key decrees, legi...

  • Communism


    Communist ideas spread rapidly in Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries, offering an alternative to both capitalism and far-right fascism and setting the stage for a political conflict with global repercussions.

  • The Oneg Shabbat Archive


    Begun as an individual chronicle by Emanuel Ringelblum in October 1939, the Oneg Shabbat underground archive became the secret archive of the Warsaw ghetto.

    The Oneg Shabbat Archive
  • Katzenberger Case, March 13, 1942


     The [Oath of Loyalty for All State Officials] was one of a series of key decree...

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