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  • 1940: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events during 1940 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.

    Tags: key dates
    1940: Key Dates
  • Sachsenhausen: Liberation and Postwar Trials

    Article

    Learn about the death march of prisoners from the Sachsenhausen camp, liberation of the remaining prisoners, and postwar trials of camp staff.

    Sachsenhausen: Liberation and Postwar Trials
  • Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #4: The Pohl Case

    Article

    The Pohl Case was Case #4 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.

    Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #4: The Pohl Case
  • Youth Camps

    Article

    Moringen, Uckermark, and Litzmannstadt were reform camps established to confine young people who were deemed to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals. Learn more

    Youth Camps
  • Liberation of Lublin-Majdanek

    Timeline Event

    July 23, 1944. On this date, Soviet forces liberated the Lublin/Majdanek concentration camp in Poland.

    Liberation of Lublin-Majdanek
  • Jakob Frenkiel

    ID Card

    Jakob was one of seven boys in a religious Jewish family. They lived in a town 50 miles west of Warsaw called Gabin, where Jakob's father worked as a cap maker. Gabin had one of Poland's oldest synagogues, built of wood in 1710. Like most of Gabin's Jews, Jakob's family lived close to the synagogue. The family of nine occupied a one-room apartment on the top floor of a three-story building. 1933-39: On September 1, 1939, just a few months before Jakob turned 10, the Germans started a war with Poland.…

    Tags: Auschwitz
    Jakob Frenkiel
  • Gertrud Gruenbaum

    ID Card

    Born to a Jewish father and a Catholic mother, Gertrud grew up in Vienna. Trude, as she was affectionately called, attended a public secondary school, where half of her classmates were Jewish. At age 7 she rejected music lessons for classes in dancing and acting. Trude wanted to be like Greta Garbo. She launched an acting career at age 18, assuming the stage name Trude Hermann. 1933-39: Because Gertrud was Jewish she couldn't get acting jobs in Austria and nearby Sudetenland. In 1937 her agent found work…

    Tags: Austria Italy
    Gertrud Gruenbaum
  • Marcus Fass

    ID Card

    Marcus, known to his family as Moniek, was one of three children born to a Jewish family in the Polish town of Ulanow. His father worked as a tailor. Ulanow's Jewish community had many of its own organizations and maintained a large library. From the age of 3, Moniek attended a religious school. He started public school when he was 7. 1933-39: In 1935 Moniek's father left for America to find a job so that his family could later join him. He sent money to them while they waited for their emigration papers.…

    Marcus Fass
  • Machla Spicehandler Braun

    ID Card

    Raised in Lowicz, Poland, in a religious Jewish family, Machla moved to Lodz when she married Jacob Braun. Her husband worked as a businessman and real estate investor. He became the landlord for an apartment building where he and his family also lived. Machla, a housewife, cared for their five children, who ranged in age from 5 to 15. 1933-39: Machla worked as a volunteer for the Zionist cause. The Brauns were a close family, and Machla's daughters Lena and Eva held their weddings in the Braun's large…

    Machla Spicehandler Braun
  • Magdalena Kusserow

    ID Card

    One of 11 children, Magdalena was raised as a Jehovah's Witness. When she was 7, her family moved to the small town of Bad Lippspringe. Her father was a retired postal official and her mother was a teacher. Their home was known as "The Golden Age" because it was the headquarters of the local Jehovah's Witness congregation. By age 8 Magdalena could recite many Bible verses by heart. 1933-39: The Kusserow's loyalty was to Jehovah, so the Nazis marked them as enemies. At 12 Magdalena joined her parents and…

    Magdalena Kusserow
  • Otto-Karl Gruenbaum

    ID Card

    Born to a Jewish father and a Catholic mother, Otto grew up in a city well known for its musical tradition. The younger of two children, Otto began studying the piano at age 10. After entering the Vienna Conservatory of Music, he gave his first concert at age 14. Encouraged by Maestro Bruno Walter, he hoped to become a conductor and concert pianist. 1933-39: After Germany annexed Austria in March 1938, Otto was kicked out of the Vienna Conservatory. One night, two men ordered him to go with them to a…

    Otto-Karl Gruenbaum
  • Frederick Fleszar

    ID Card

    Frederick was the oldest of two sons born to Polish immigrants in Syracuse, New York. In 1922 Frederick's father, who was a musician, moved the family back to Poland where they settled in Poznan. There Frederick started public school and was accepted to the boys section of the prestigious Poznan Cathedral Choir. 1933-39: In 1933, at age 17, Frederick graduated from secondary school and enrolled in medical school at the university at Poznan. He sang with the choir for the last time the day he graduated…

    Tags: Poland
    Frederick Fleszar
  • Settchen Oppenheimer

    ID Card

    Settchen was one of three children born to a religious Jewish family in a small town in the German state of Hessen. Her father was a cantor and kosher butcher. Settchen completed grade school during the 1880s. Because of a digestive disease, Settchen was largely homebound. She never married, and lived with her younger sister and brother-in-law. 1933-39: Reichenbach was a quiet town. Its largely Protestant inhabitants were generally not antisemitic. After Hitler came to power in 1933, the Nazis staged…

    Tags: Germany
    Settchen Oppenheimer
  • Adela Low

    ID Card

    Adela, known as Udl to her family, was one of four children born to a Jewish family in the Polish town of Ulanow. Her father was a landowner and cattle merchant, transporting calves from the Ulanow area for sale in other towns in the region. From the age of 3, Adela attended a private religious school for girls where she learned Jewish history and Hebrew. At age 7 she began public school. 1933-39: Adela came from a charitable family; when her mother baked challah, a special bread for the Jewish Sabbath,…

    Adela Low
  • Herschel Low

    ID Card

    Herschel was the oldest of four children born to a Jewish family in the Polish town of Ulanow. His father was a landowner and cattle merchant who transported calves from the Ulanow area for sale in other towns. Herschel attended a religious school from the age of 3, and started public school at age 7. 1933-39: Since Herschel was skilled with his hands, his father got him a job weaving reed baskets after he graduated from high school. Herschel was also a member of a Jewish youth organization, Benei Akiva,…

    Herschel Low
  • Fritzie Weiss Fritzshall describes receiving help from a prisoner in the "Kanada" detail upon arrival at Auschwitz

    Oral History

    Fritzie's father immigrated to the United States, but by the time he could bring his family over, war had begun and Fritzie's mother feared attacks on transatlantic shipping. Fritzie, her mother, and two brothers were eventually sent to Auschwitz. Her mother and brothers died. Fritzie survived by pretending to be older than her age and thus a stronger worker. On a death march from Auschwitz, Fritzie ran into a forest, where she was later liberated.

    Fritzie Weiss Fritzshall describes receiving help from a prisoner in the "Kanada" detail upon arrival at Auschwitz
  • Fritzie Weiss Fritzshall describes the selection process in Auschwitz

    Oral History

    Fritzie's father immigrated to the United States, but by the time he could bring his family over, war had begun and Fritzie's mother feared attacks on transatlantic shipping. Fritzie, her mother, and two brothers were eventually sent to Auschwitz. Her mother and brothers died. Fritzie survived by pretending to be older than her age and thus a stronger worker. On a death march from Auschwitz, Fritzie ran into a forest, where she was later liberated.

    Fritzie Weiss Fritzshall describes the selection process in Auschwitz
  • Morris Kornberg describes forced labor beginning after the German invasion of Poland

    Oral History

    Morris grew up in a very religious Jewish household and was active in a Zionist sports league. When the Germans invaded Poland in September 1939, Morris's town was severely damaged. Morris's family was forced to live in a ghetto, and Morris was assigned to forced labor. After a period of imprisonment in Konskie, a town about 30 miles from Przedborz, Morris was deported to the Auschwitz camp. He was assigned to the Jawischowitz subcamp of Auschwitz. In January 1945, Morris was forced on a death march and…

    Morris Kornberg describes forced labor beginning after the German invasion of Poland
  • German Jews during the Holocaust

    Article

    By September 1939, over half of German Jews had emigrated. WWII would accelerate the persecution, deportation, and later, mass murder, of the remainder of Germany's Jews.

    German Jews during the Holocaust
  • The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk

    Article

    Arthur Szyk became one of America's most prominent cartoonists and caricaturists during World War II. His images reached millions during the 1940s. Learn more.

    The Art and Politics of Arthur Szyk
  • Children's Aid Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants)

    Article

    During WWII, the Children’s Aid Society (OSE) operated 14 children's homes throughout France to save Jewish children from internment and deportation to killing centers.

    Children's Aid Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants)
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Article

    Eleanor Roosevelt, longest serving First Lady in US history, used her social and political influence to intervene on behalf of refugees before and during WWII.

    Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Photographer Yevgeny Khaldei

    Media Essay

    Photographer and renowned photojournalist Yevgeny Khaldei covered the events of World War II from Moscow to Berlin. Explore some of his images.

    Photographer Yevgeny Khaldei
  • Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"

    Artifact

    Identifying armband worn by Pao Chia member. In 1942 the Japanese in Shanghai established self-policing units, Pao Chia, composed of all men, foreigners and Chinese, aged 20 to 45. In the designated area, male refugees served several hours weekly in rotating shifts as guards for buildings and ghetto entrances where they examined passes. Despite the Japanese use of the Pao Chia to help police the ghetto, it was relatively easy to leave the "designated area," which was not walled in. Individuals who did so,…

    Armband for "Foreign Pao Chia Vigilance Corps Pao"
  • Jazz musician Valaida Snow

    Film

    In the 1930s, famous Tennessee jazz musician Valaida Snow was known as “Little Louis” because her talent with a trumpet rivaled the legendary Louis Armstrong. She performed around the world, but it was a tour of Europe that would haunt her for the rest of her life.  While in German-occupied Denmark, Snow is said to have been arrested and imprisoned in Copenhagen. It is still unclear why she was arrested or what was done to her while she was held, but after her release in a May 1942 prisoner exchange,…

    Jazz musician Valaida Snow
  • Frank Bleichman

    Article

    Learn more about Frank Bleichman, a Polish partisan who resisted and fought against the Nazis during World War II.

  • The Hadamar Trial

    Article

    The Hadamar Trial of October 1945 was the first mass atrocity trial held in the US occupation zone of Germany following World War II.

    The Hadamar Trial
  • Jakub Lapides

    Article

    Young people's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jakub Lapides.

    Jakub Lapides
  • Einsatzgruppen: An Overview

    Article

    Einsatzgruppen, often called “mobile killing units,” are best known for their role in the murder of Jews in mass shooting operations during the Holocaust.

    Einsatzgruppen: An Overview
  • Nazi Medical Experiments

    Article

    German physicians conducted inhumane experiments on prisoners in the camps during the Holocaust. Learn more about Nazi medical experiments during WW2.

    Nazi Medical Experiments
  • Lion Feuchtwanger

    Article

    Lion Feuchtwanger was a bestselling German Jewish author who was persecuted under the Nazi regime. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933.

    Lion Feuchtwanger
  • Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust

    Article

    When World War II ended in 1945, six million European Jews were dead, killed in the Holocaust. About 1.5 million of the victims were children.

    Life in Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust
  • The 2nd Infantry Division during World War II

    Article

    The 2nd Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Leipzig-Schönefeld and Spergau/Zöschen in 1945.

  • Jewish Community of Kalisz: Economy, Politics, Government

    Article

    Economic, governmental, and political life in the Jewish community of Kalisz between World War and World War II.

    Jewish Community of Kalisz: Economy, Politics, Government
  • Allen Small

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Allen Small.

    Allen Small
  • Bayer

    Article

    As part of the IG Farben conglomerate, which strongly supported the Third Reich, the Bayer company was complicit in the crimes of Nazi Germany. Learn more.

  • Nazi Imperialism: An Overview

    Article

    The Nazis pursued the imperialist concept of Lebensraum (living space) as they conquered eastern Europe. Read more about the deadly consequences of Nazi imperialism.

    Nazi Imperialism: An Overview
  • Landsberg Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Landsberg DP camp.

    Landsberg Displaced Persons Camp
  • Santa Maria di Bagni Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Santa Maria di Bagni DP camp.

    Santa Maria di Bagni Displaced Persons Camp
  • Ministry of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment

    Article

    In Nazi Germany, the Ministry of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment spread ideology. It controlled the media and theater. Joseph Goebbels was its director. Learn more.

    Ministry of Propaganda and Public Enlightenment
  • Leon Bakst

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Leon Bakst.

    Leon Bakst
  • Tuvia Bielski

    Article

    Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Tuvia Bielski.

    Tuvia Bielski
  • A group of Tunisian schoolgirls

    Photo

    A group of Tunisian schoolgirls wearing aprons. Nadia Cohen is in the first row, third from the left. Tunis, Tunisia, ca. 1930-1935. Nadia Cohen was born on January 17, 1924, in Tunis. Nadia's parents came from Orthodox households, but her father left the yeshiva at the age of seven to study Italian, Arabic, and accounting in a French school. In 1938, Nadia was sent to a boarding school in France. She returned home for a visit in the summer of 1939 but could not return to school that fall due to the…

    A group of Tunisian schoolgirls
  • Germans Destroy Lidice

    Timeline Event

    June 9, 1942. On this date, German forces destroyed the village of Lidice as retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in Prague.

    Germans Destroy Lidice
  • Lois Gunden and staff of the Ville St. Christophe refugee children’s home

    Photo

    Lois Gunden (center right) with other members of the Ville St. Christophe staff in Canet-Plage, France.  At the age of 26, Lois Gunden, a Mennonite and French teacher from Goshen, Indiana, sailed to Europe to head the Ville St. Christophe refugee children’s home in Canet-Plage, France. She had not been involved with overseas relief work before, and had never been to Europe. But she spoke French, and the Mennonite Central Committee needed someone willing to place herself in danger to help others.…

    Lois Gunden and staff of the Ville St. Christophe refugee children’s home
  • World War II: In Depth

    Article

    Germany started World War II in Europe on September 1, 1939, by invading Poland. War would continue until 1945. Learn more about key events in the history of WWII.

    Tags: World War II
    World War II: In Depth
  • Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime

    Article

    Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.

    Timeline of the German Military and the Nazi Regime
  • Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes receiving her first set of false papers

    Oral History

    In 1933 Barbara's family moved to Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. They became friends of Anne Frank and her family. The Germans invaded the Netherlands in 1940. Barbara's boyfriend, Manfred, had underground contacts and she got false papers. Her mother, sister, and father were deported to Westerbork and then to Auschwitz. Barbara survived using her false papers and worked for the resistance. She helped take Jews to hiding places and also hid Jews in an apartment held in her false name.

    Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes receiving her first set of false papers
  • Freiberg

    Article

    Learn about the Freiburg subcamp of Flossenbürg, including its establishment, prisoner population, and conditions there.

  • Mass Shootings of Jews during the Holocaust

    Article

    Almost one third of the six million Holocaust victims were murdered in mass shootings.

    Mass Shootings of Jews during the Holocaust

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