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Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Jutta Szmirgeld.
The Jewish children of Lodz suffered harsh conditions after the German invasion of Poland. Read excerpts from diaries where they recorded their experiences.
Children's diaries bear witness to some of the most heartbreaking events of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of Sara Rachela Plagier.
Young people's diaries capture some of the most heartbreaking experiences of the Holocaust. Learn about the diary and experiences of David Sierakowiak.
Allen Small (left). Allen became a partisan fighter at age 14.
Anne Frank, age twelve, at her school desk. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1941.
Forced Labor In German-occupied areas, the Nazis singled out Jewish laborers for cruel treatment. Jewish laborers were also subjected to humiliating treatment, as when SS men forced religious Jews to submit to having their beards cut. The ghettos served as bases for utilizing Jewish labor, as did forced-labor camps for Jews in occupied Poland. In the Lodz ghetto, for example, the Nazis opened 96 factories. The ability to work could save one's life, but most often only temporarily. Jews deemed unproductive…
Decrees that ordered Jews to wear special badges for purposes of identification existed before the Nazi era. Learn about this history.
The Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages. Read more about the indoctrination of youth.
Studio portrait of Jankl Zuckerkandel, taken in The Hague, the Netherlands, in or around 1941. Jankl was killed in Sobibor at the age of three.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.