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American judges (top row, seated) during the Doctors Trial, case #1 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Presiding Judge Walter B. Beals is seated second from the left. Nuremberg, Germany, December 9, 1946–August 20, 1947.
Display from "Der ewige Jude" (The Eternal Jew), a Nazi antisemitic exhibit which claimed that Jews heavily dominated the German performing arts. A phrase at the top of the display states "Shameless Entertainment." Berlin, Germany, November 11, 1938.
Excerpt from Holocaust survivor Abraham Bomba's oral history testimony describing gas chambers at the Treblinka killing center.
Vladka belonged to the Zukunft youth movement of the Bund (the Jewish Socialist party). She was active in the Warsaw ghetto underground as a member of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB). In December 1942, she was smuggled out to the Aryan, Polish side of Warsaw to try to obtain arms and to find hiding places for children and adults. She became an active courier for the Jewish underground and for Jews in camps, forests, and other ghettos.
(Top) A map dated August 1942 showing the area of the late summer skirmishes between Hungarian and Soviet forces. It also shows the crucial bend in the Don River near the town of Uryv, where the fateful Soviet breakthrough occurred in January 1943. (Bottom) "Fairy tale nights along the Don River, August 1942." [Photograph #58058]
(Top) A drawing dated October 1942 depicting the events of August 28 when Beifeld was wounded near the front lines. His caption reads: "I get wounded and manage to get away from the dangerous bend in the [Don] river]." (Bottom left) Skull of a Soviet soldier with the caption 'Keep Smiling.' (Bottom right) Map entitled 'Dangerous Curve' depicting the bend in the Don River where the Soviet army was threatening to break through. [Photograph # 58061]
November 15, 1940. On this date, German authorities ordered the Warsaw ghetto to be sealed.
August 21, 1940. On this date, Samuel Soltz's visa was stamped by Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese consul to Lithuania.
In this 1934 portrait of Norman Salsitz's family, Norman is seated in the front row (at left). In the top row, center, an image of one of Norman's brothers has been pasted into the photograph. This is seen by comparing the size of the brother's face with the others pictured. Pasting in images of family members who could not be present during family portraits was common practice and in some cases the resulting composite images are the only remaining visual records of family groups.
Family portrait of the Gartenberg family in Drohobycz, Poland. None of those pictured would survive the Holocaust. Photograph taken in 1930. Top row: Julius Gartenberg, Anna Fern, Bernard Klinger, Ona Fern and Izador Gartenberg. Lower row: Marcus Gartenberg, Hinda Gartenberg with her grandaughter Tony Schwartz on her lap, Sol Schwartz, and Ida Fern.
Poster for a meeting and speech about the Jewish Bolshevik threat against Germany sponsored by the local Nazi Party of East Hannover. Depicted is a silhouetted caricature of a Jewish man’s head in left profile, with a large, red Star of David beside him. The announcement at the top of the poster reads: "Victory over Bolshevism and plutocracy means being freed from the Jewish parasite!" Created ca. 1937–1940.
Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
Portrait of a preschool class in Copenhagen. Gus Goldenburger (top row, second from left) was one of the few Jewish students in the class. His family moved to Denmark from Czechoslovakia, fearing the rising tide of Nazism. When the Nazis planned to deport Danish Jewry, the Goldenburgers managed to escape to Sweden, where they remained until the end of the war. After the war, the Goldenburgers returned to Copenhagen. Photograph taken in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1938–1939.
Doriane's Jewish family fled to Amsterdam in 1940, a year that also saw the German occupation of the Netherlands. Her father perished after deportation to Auschwitz. After their mother was seized, Doriane and her brother hid with gentiles. The three were reunited at Bergen-Belsen, where they were deported via Westerbork. They were liberated during the camp's 1945 evacuation. Doriane's mother died of cancer soon after Doriane helped her recover from typhus.
Diaries reveal some of the most intimate, heart-wrenching accounts of the Holocaust. They record in real time the feelings of loss, fear, and, sometimes, hope of those facing extraordinary peril. Selma Wijnberg and Chaim Engel met and fell in love in the Sobibor killing center. After the young couple made a daring escape during the camp uprising and fled into hiding, Selma began a diary to record their experiences. The diary was written in 1943-1944 while Selma was in hiding in German-occupied…
Collage entitled: "Mementos from the Russian campaign," which includes a watercolor of Stalin with the caption: 'Russia a meeting place for foreigners 1942-43' (top); a commuter train ticket issued to military personnel who carried the special SAS [Hurry, Immediate, Urgent] draft notice (middle, right); a pseudo travel brochure cover entitled 'Spend your summer vacation in merry Russia' (bottom, left); and the original design for the cover of the labor company's journal entitled 'Hungarian Royal 109/13…
Eugenics poster entitled "The relationship between Jews and Freemasons." The text at the top reads: "World politics World revolution." The text at the bottom reads, "Freemasonry is an international organization beholden to Jewry with the political goal of establishing Jewish domination through world-wide revolution." The map, decorated with Masonic symbols (temple, square, and apron), shows where revolutions took place in Europe from the French Revolution in 1789 through the German Revolution in 1919. This…
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Eugenio Gentili Tedeschi.
The term genocide refers to violent crimes committed against groups with the intent to destroy the existence of the group. Learn about the origin of the term.
Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Learn about key events in the world and his life from 1928–1951.
Léon Degrelle was an extreme right-wing Belgian politician and Nazi collaborator. After the war, he continued to spread pro-Nazi propaganda for decades. Learn more.
Like other Jews, the Lewents were confined to the Warsaw ghetto. In 1942, as Abraham hid in a crawl space, the Germans seized his mother and sisters in a raid. They perished. He was deployed for forced labor nearby, but escaped to return to his father in the ghetto. In 1943, the two were deported to Majdanek, where Abraham's father died. Abraham later was sent to Skarzysko, Buchenwald, Schlieben, Bisingen, and Dachau. US troops liberated Abraham as the Germans evacuated prisoners.
The Germans occupied David's town, previously annexed by Hungary, in 1944. David was deported to Auschwitz and, with his father, transported to Plaszow. David was sent to the Gross-Rosen camp and to Reichenbach. He was then among three of 150 in a cattle car who survived transportation to Dachau. He was liberated after a death march from Innsbruck toward the front line of combat between US and German troops.
A page of drawings illustrating the contribution of Jewish Labor Servicemen to the war effort. At the top: "The different platoons work hard at the battle front and in the no man's land [between the armies]. They actively participate in the fighting. They carry ammunition to the Hungarian soldiers." In the middle: "They defuse land mines. They bury the dead, including those that had been left unburied from the winter campaign. They carry soldiers wounded on the front lines to safety." At the bottom: "For…
Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from 1929 until 1945. Learn more about key dates in the life of Heinrich Himmler.
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