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Soviet photographer Yevgeny Khaldei stands on top of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin where he, along with a few Soviet soldiers, raised the Soviet flag. Berlin, Germany, May 1945.
Group portrait of members of the Freemasons Lodge of Chernovtsy, Bukovina, approximately 75 percent of whom were Jewish. The members were mainly intellectuals and leaders in business and local government. Among those pictured are Dr. Max Ennis (top row, third from the left); pharmacist, Dr. Abraham Guttman (top row, far right); an official in the revenue service, Dr. Max Gottfried (second row from the top, sixth from the left); and the judge, Dr. Jacob Rubel (third row from the top, far left). Chernovtsy,…
June 30-July 2, 1934. On this date, Adolf Hitler ordered the Röhm Purge (also known as the "Night of the Long Knives").
A suitcase used (ca. 1939) by a Jewish refugee fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe to Japan. The suitcase is covered with labels from various stops along the journey, including one from a hotel in Moscow (top left), one for the NYK Line (top middle), and six from hotels throughout Japan. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1934.
The Röhm Purge (the “Night of the Long Knives") was the murder of the leadership of the SA (Storm Troopers), the Nazi paramilitary formation led by Ernst Röhm. Learn more.
Three of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Oneg Shabbat archive were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. In this view the three boxes are stacked on top of one another. The box on top is displayed on its side without the lid.
(Top and bottom) The image at the top shows Hungarian soldiers abandoning their trenches on the front lines as a Soviet tank overruns the barbed wire fortification separating the two armies. The drawing at the bottom captioned "Alarm," shows Hungarian soldiers running back and forth sounding the alarm of the Soviet counteroffensive. The drawings are dated Jan 11 and 13, 1943. [Photograph #58103]
Survivor Elie Wiesel devoted his life to educating the world about the Holocaust. Learn about key events in the world and his life from 1928–1951.
Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.