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  • Book burning in Berlin


    At Berlin's Opernplatz, the burning of books and other printed materials considered "un-German" by members of the SA and students from universities and colleges in Berlin. Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Book burning in Berlin
  • Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels speaks during the book burning


    Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels (at podium) praises students and members of the SA for their efforts to destroy books deemed "un-German" during the book burning at Berlin's Opernplatz (opera square). Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels speaks during the book burning
  • An Overview of the Holocaust: Topics to Teach


    Recommended resources, topics, context, rationale, and critical thinking questions if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust.

    An Overview of the Holocaust: Topics to Teach
  • Gabrielle Weidner

    ID Card

    Gabrielle was the second of four children born to Dutch parents. Her father was a minister in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. She grew up in Collonges, France, near the Swiss border, where her father served as a pastor. Gabrielle was baptized in the Seventh-Day Adventist faith at the age of 16. She attended secondary school in London, England. 1933-39: Gabrielle became increasingly active in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, eventually becoming the secretary at the French-Belgian Union of Seventh-Day…

    Gabrielle Weidner
  • Zofia Yamaika

    ID Card

    Zofia was raised in a well-to-do, prominent Hasidic Jewish family in Warsaw. Uneasy with the constant tension between the Polish people and the Jewish minority, Zofia joined the communist student club Spartacus when she was a teenager. Spartacus actively campaigned against the growing fascist movement in Europe. 1933-39: When Warsaw surrendered to the Germans on September 28, 1939, Zofia was 14 years old. She stopped going to school. Though the Nazis banned Spartacus, she secretly helped to revive the…

    Zofia Yamaika
  • Janusz Piotrowski

    ID Card

    Janusz was the eldest of four children born to Catholic parents in Plock, a town located in a rural area north of Warsaw. His father was an accountant. Janusz attended local schools, and became active in scouting. 1933-39: Janusz went to Warsaw to study civil engineering. On September 1, 1939, the Germans began bombing Warsaw. One week later, all able-bodied men who had not been mobilized were directed to retreat east. On September 17, Janusz was 90 miles from the Romanian border. That night, the Soviets…

    Tags: Poland Gusen
    Janusz Piotrowski
  • Maurits Wijnberg

    ID Card

    Maurits was one of four children born to religious Jewish parents living in the town of Leek. When he was 12, the Wijnbergs moved to the town of Zwolle, where they ran a kosher hotel. That same year, Maurits became ill with meningitis. After he recovered, he worked hard to compensate for missed school and became an exceptional student. 1933-39: Along with his younger sister, Maurits was active in the local Zionist organization. One of the group's activities was raising money for Palestine [Yishuv]. Every…

    Maurits Wijnberg
  • Susanne Ledermann

    ID Card

    Susanne was the younger of two daughters born to Jewish parents in the German capital of Berlin. Her father was a successful lawyer. Known affectionately as Sanne, Susanne liked to play with her sister on the veranda of her home and enjoyed visiting the Berlin Zoo and park with her family. 1933-39: After the Nazis came to power in January 1933, it became illegal for Jewish lawyers to have non-Jewish clients. When Susanne was 4, her father's law practice closed down and the Ledermanns moved to the…

    Tags: Auschwitz
    Susanne Ledermann
  • “Give Me Your Children”: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto


    The Jewish children of Lodz suffered harsh conditions after the German invasion of Poland. Read excerpts from diaries where they recorded their experiences.

    “Give Me Your Children”: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto
  • Ernest Hemingway - Photograph

    Media Essay

    On May 10, 1933, Nazi students at universities across Germany pillaged and burned books they claimed were “un-German.” Ernest Hemingway’s

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