Amid intensifying anti-Jewish measures and the 1938 Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom, Johanna's family decided to leave Germany. They obtained visas for Albania, crossed into Italy, and sailed in 1939. They remained in Albania under the Italian occupation and, after Italy surrendered in 1943, under German occupation. The family was liberated after a battle between the Germans and Albanian partisans in December 1944.
Hundreds of laws, decrees, guidelines, and regulations increasingly restricted the civil and human rights of Jews in Germany from 1933-39. Learn more.
Goblets used in Shanghai by the Caspary family for blessings (Kiddush) over wine on the Sabbath or Jewish holidays. The Orthodox Casparys ran a kosher restaurant frequented by yeshiva students from Poland. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]
Alexander Schmorell, a member of the White Rose student opposition, upon his graduation from high school. Schmorell was arrested, condemned to death by the People's Court, and executed on July 13, 1943.
Class photograph of students at the San Leone Magno Fratelli Maristi boarding school in Rome. Pictured in the top row at the far right is Zigmund Krauthamer, a Jewish child who was being hidden at the school. Rome, Italy, 1943–44.
At Berlin's Opernplatz, the burning of books and other printed materials considered "un-German" by members of the SA and students from universities and colleges in Berlin. Germany, May 10, 1933.
Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels (at podium) praises students and members of the SA for their efforts to destroy books deemed "un-German" during the book burning at Berlin's Opernplatz (opera square). Germany, May 10, 1933.
A Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) greeting card. Sorle and Shalomis Gorfinkel presented this card to their parents on the occasion of Rosh Hashanah 5704, the Jewish New Year 1943. The Gorfinkel family was part of the Mir Yeshiva community in Shanghai.
The Jewish children of Lodz suffered harsh conditions after the German invasion of Poland. Read excerpts from diaries where they recorded their experiences.
Recommended resources, topics, context, rationale, and critical thinking questions if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust.
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