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  • School Report Card Issued in a DP Camp

    Photo

    This report card was issued to Regina Laks, a fifth-grade student at the Herzel Hebrew Public School at the Düppel Center displaced persons camp.

    School Report Card Issued in a DP Camp
  • Simone Weil's falsified student card

    Document

    After adopting a new identity in late 1943, Simone Weil falsified her student card from the year 1938-1939 to bear her assumed name, Simone Werlin. The card verified enrollment in the School of Social Work in Strasbourg. Using forged and falsified documents, Weil was able to move to Chateauroux, France, and establish an operation to rescue Jewish children as a member of the relief and rescue organization Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (Children's Aid Society; OSE).

    Simone Weil's falsified student card
  • University Student Groups in Nazi Germany

    Article

    Nazi student groups played a key role in aligning German universities with Nazi ideology and in solidifying Nazi power.

    Tags: students youth
    University Student Groups in Nazi Germany
  • Mirjana Babunovic Dimitrijevic

    ID Card

    Mirjana was the second of three children born to well-to-do Serbian parents in the capital of Bosnia, in central Yugoslavia. Her father was a successful businessman and prominent Serbian nationalist. Like her parents, Mirjana was baptized in the Serbian Orthodox faith. Mirjana attended elementary school in the multi-ethnic city of Sarajevo. 1933-39: While in secondary school, Mirjana studied foreign languages and toured western Europe. In 1938 she graduated. That fall she enrolled as a student of English…

    Mirjana Babunovic Dimitrijevic
  • Book Burning

    Article

    Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials. The Nazi burning of books in May 1933 is perhaps the most famous in history. Learn more.

    Book Burning
  • Poster: "Students/Be the Führer's propagandists"

    Photo

    Poster: "Students/Be the Führer's propagandists." With militant appeals to nationalism, freedom, and self-sacrifice, the Nazi Party successfully recruited students disenchanted with German democracy and their current student organizations.

    Poster: "Students/Be the Führer's propagandists"
  • Mir Yeshiva

    Article

    Learn about the escape of rabbis and students of the Mir Yeshiva, the only eastern European yeshiva to survive the Holocaust intact.

    Mir Yeshiva
  • The White Rose Opposition Movement

    Article

    The White Rose, led by students including Hans and Sophie Scholl, was an anti-Nazi group during WWII. Its members spread leaflets denouncing the regime.

  • Karl Marx

    Article

    Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.

    Karl Marx
  • Ritchie Boys

    Article

    “Ritchie Boys” is a term used for American soldiers who trained at Camp Ritchie during World War II. Several thousand were Jewish refugees from Europe. Learn more.

    Ritchie Boys
  • Theodor Wolff

    Article

    Theodor Wolff was an influential German journalist and vocal opponent of the Nazis. His work was burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.

  • Students and members of the SA unload materials for book burning

    Photo

    Students and members of the SA unload books deemed "un-German" during the book burning in Berlin. The banner reads: "German students march against the un-German spirit." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Students and members of the SA unload materials for book burning
  • Francis Ofner

    ID Card

    Francis grew up in a city with a Jewish community of 5,000. The Ofners belonged to a synagogue that sponsored many social activities, from sports to care for the elderly. In 1931 Francis began law school at the University of Zagreb. While a student, he organized a service that posted on university bulletin boards the translations of speeches by Nazi leaders broadcast on the radio. 1933-39: By the time Hitler became chancellor of Germany, Francis was heavily involved in trying to unify the university's…

    Tags: Yugoslavia
    Francis Ofner
  • Simcha Perlmutter

    ID Card

    Simcha was one of six children born to a Jewish family in the town of Horochow. His father was a Hebrew teacher. Simcha was an excellent student and after studying at universities in Switzerland, France, and Germany, he became a philosophy professor at the university in Lvov. In the early 1920s he married, and by 1929 he and his wife, Fruma, had two daughters, Tchiya and Shulamit. 1933-39: Simcha was a Zionist and throughout the 1930s he encouraged his Jewish students to emigrate to Palestine [Aliyah…

    Simcha Perlmutter
  • Herman Klein

    ID Card

    Herman was the fourth of eight children born to a religious Jewish family in the small town of Sirma, located near the city of Sevlus. The Kleins had a small plot of land, which they farmed, and they also ran a shoe shop. At age four Herman began attending religious school. When he started public elementary school, he continued his religious lessons in the afternoons. 1933-39: In March 1939, the region of Czechoslovakia in which Herman lived was annexed to Hungary. His teacher at school was replaced by a…

    Herman Klein
  • Pass issued to rabbinical student Moshe Zupnik

    Document

    Special pass issued to rabbinical student Moshe Zupnik. Yeshiva students had to obtain special passes from Japanese authorities to leave the "designated area" in order to continue their studies at the Beth Aharon Synagogue, which was located outside the zone. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: Japan Judaism
    Pass issued to rabbinical student Moshe Zupnik
  • Pass for rabbinical student Chaim Gorfinkel

    Document

    Special pass issued to rabbinical student Chaim Gorfinkel. Yeshiva students had to obtain special passes from Japanese authorities to leave the "designated area" in order to continue their studies at the Beth Aharon Synagogue, which was located outside the zone. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: Judaism Japan
    Pass for rabbinical student Chaim Gorfinkel
  • Heidenheim Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.

    Heidenheim Displaced Persons Camp
  • Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp

    Article

    After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Mariendorf DP camp.

    Mariendorf Displaced Persons Camp
  • Students gather books for book burning

    Photo

    Across Germany, students took books by truck, furniture van, even oxcart, and heaped them into pyres on public squares. This image shows members of the SA and students from the University of Frankfurt with oxen pulling manure carts loaded with books deemed "un-German." Frankfurt am Main, Germany, May 10, 1933.

    Students gather books for book burning
  • Leon Trotsky

    Article

    Leon Trotsky was a communist and close associate of Vladimir Lenin. His works were burned in the Nazi book burnings of May 1933. Learn more.

  • Law Limits Jews in Public Schools

    Timeline Event

    April 25, 1933. On this date, the German government issued the Law against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities, limiting the amount of Jewish students.

    Law Limits Jews in Public Schools
  • Frank Liebermann

    Article

    Explore Frank Liebermann’s biography and learn about his experiences of antisemitism in his home town in Germany before World War II.

  • Misuse of Holocaust Imagery Today: When Is It Antisemitism?

    Article

    Many images and symbols from the Holocaust era have become easily recognizable. The familiarit...

    Tags: antisemitism
  • Book Burning

    Timeline Event

    May 10, 1933. On this date, books deemed "un-German" are publicly burned throughout Germany.

    Book Burning

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