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  • Le Chambon-sur-Lignon


    From 1940 to 1944, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon and neighboring villages provided shelter to some 5,000 people, among them Jews fleeing persecution.

    Le Chambon-sur-Lignon
  • Théophile Larue


    French policeman Théophile Larue, who warned his Jewish neighbors of an upcoming roundup.

    Tags: rescue
    Théophile Larue
  • Hessy Levinsons Taft describes her family's escape from occupied France to the "zone libre" (free zone) in the south of France

    Oral History

    As prewar antisemitism intensified, Hessy's family fled from Germany to Paris, France. France fell to the German army in June 1940. Hessy's family was smuggled into the "zone libre" (free zone) in southern France. The family received a US visa in 1941, but was unable to leave before the visa expired and could not obtain an extension. In 1942, the family obtained visas to enter Cuba, where they settled before immigrating to the United States in 1949.

    Tags: escape France
    Hessy Levinsons Taft describes her family's escape from occupied France to the "zone libre" (free zone) in the south of France
  • The Nazi Persecution of Black People in Germany


    Read about the Nazi persecution of Black people, as well as Black people's experiences in Germany before the Nazi rise to power.

  • Aryan


    Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party adapted, manipulated, and radicalized the unfounded belief in the existence of an "Aryan race." Learn about the term Aryan.

  • Rémy Dumoncel

    ID Card

    Rémy was born in a small French town to Catholic parents. In 1913, after studying law at the University of Paris, he joined the Tallandier publishing house in Paris. During World War I he served in the French army and was wounded five times. He returned to work at Tallandier after the war, and in 1919 he married Germaine Tallandier, the daughter of the owner. They had five children whom they raised as devout Catholics. 1933-39: In 1935 Rémy became the mayor of Avon, a small town about 35 miles southeast…

    Rémy Dumoncel
  • Jewish Partisans


    Jewish Partisans Some Jews who managed to escape from ghettos and camps formed their own fighting units. These fighters, or partisans, were concentrated in densely wooded areas. A large group of partisans in occupied Soviet territory hid in a forest near the Lithuanian capital of Vilna. They were able to derail hundreds of trains and kill over 3,000 German soldiers. Life as a partisan in the forest was difficult. People had to move from place to place to avoid discovery, raid farmers' food supplies to…

    Jewish Partisans
  • Martin Hans Munzer

    ID Card

    Hans was born to Jewish parents in a town in northwestern Germany. The family moved to Berlin when Hans' father obtained a post there as a history teacher in a secondary school. After graduating from university, Hans married and settled with his wife Margaret in an apartment in Berlin. In 1920 their child Wolfgang was born. Hans worked as foreign representative for a sewing notions company. 1933-39: When the Nazis won the election a few weeks ago, Hans was afraid for people like himself who are active…

    Martin Hans Munzer
  • Gleichschaltung: Coordinating the Nazi State


    Gleichschaltung is the German term applied to the Nazification of all aspects of German society following the Nazi rise to power in 1933.

    Gleichschaltung: Coordinating the Nazi State
  • Otto Wels


    Social Democratic politician Otto Wels was the only German parliamentary leader to openly oppose passage of the Enabling Act, the cornerstone of Adolf Hitler's dictatorship.

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