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  • The SA

    Article

    The SA (Sturmabteilung) was a paramilitary organization integral to Hitler’s ascension to power. Learn more about the rise and fall of the SA.

    The SA
  • Doriane Kurz recalls Bergen-Belsen prisoners hauling wagons of corpses

    Oral History

    Doriane's Jewish family fled to Amsterdam in 1940, a year that also saw the German occupation of the Netherlands. Her father perished after deportation to Auschwitz. After their mother was seized, Doriane and her brother hid with gentiles. The three were reunited at Bergen-Belsen, where they were deported via Westerbork. They were liberated during the camp's 1945 evacuation. Doriane's mother died of cancer soon after Doriane helped her recover from typhus.   

    Doriane Kurz recalls Bergen-Belsen prisoners hauling wagons of corpses
  • Röhm Affair

    Timeline Event

    June 30-July 2, 1934. On this date, Adolf Hitler ordered the Röhm Purge (also known as the "Night of the Long Knives").

    Röhm Affair
  • Beifeld album page about events of August 28, 1942

    Artifact

    (Top) A drawing dated October 1942 depicting the events of August 28 when Beifeld was wounded near the front lines. His caption reads: "I get wounded and manage to get away from the dangerous bend in the [Don] river]." (Bottom left) Skull of a Soviet soldier with the caption 'Keep Smiling.' (Bottom right) Map entitled 'Dangerous Curve' depicting the bend in the Don River where the Soviet army was threatening to break through. [Photograph # 58061]

    Beifeld album page about events of August 28, 1942
  • Fire Oaths

    Article

    “Fire Oaths” were statements that declared why the works of certain authors were thrown into the flames during the 1933 burning of books under the Nazi regime.

    Fire Oaths
  • Refugee's suitcase

    Artifact

    A suitcase used (ca. 1939) by a Jewish refugee fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe to Japan. The suitcase is covered with labels from various stops along the journey, including one from a hotel in Moscow (top left), one for the NYK Line (top middle), and six from hotels throughout Japan. [From the USHMM special exhibition Flight and Rescue.]

    Tags: refugees Japan
    Refugee's suitcase
  • 1934: Key Dates

    Article

    Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1934.

    Tags: key dates
    1934: Key Dates
  • Samuel Gruber describes public hangings and beatings in the Lublin-Lipowa camp

    Oral History

    A Polish soldier, Samuel was wounded in action and taken by Germany as a prisoner of war. As the war continued, he and other Jewish prisoners received increasingly harsh treatment. Among the camps in which he was interned was Lublin-Lipowa, where he was among those forced to build the Majdanek concentration camp. In 1942, he escaped from the Germans, spending the rest of the war as the leader of an armed partisan group.

    Tags: camps
    Samuel Gruber describes public hangings and beatings in the Lublin-Lipowa camp
  • Susan Bluman describes the German invasion of Poland

    Oral History

    Susan was 19 years old when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939. Her boyfriend, Nathan, was in Lvov when the Soviet Union occupied eastern Poland. Nathan sent a guide to Warsaw to bring Susan to the Soviet zone of occupied Poland. Her parents reluctantly agreed after Susan promised to return to Warsaw within two weeks. Upon her arrival in Lvov, Susan married Nathan. The couple then fled across the Lithuanian border to Vilna, where they stayed for a year. They received a visa for transit through Japan…

    Susan Bluman describes the German invasion of Poland
  • US veteran Tarmo Holma describes encountering camp survivors

    Oral History

    Tarmo Holma is a veteran of the 11th Armored Division. During the invasion of German-held Austria, in May 1945 the 11th Armored (the "Thunderbolt" division) overran two of the largest Nazi concentration camps in the country: Mauthausen and Gusen.

    US veteran Tarmo Holma describes encountering camp survivors

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