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  • Beifeld album page about Soviet counteroffensive

    Artifact

    (Top and bottom) The image at the top shows Hungarian soldiers abandoning their trenches on the front lines as a Soviet tank overruns the barbed wire fortification separating the two armies. The drawing at the bottom captioned "Alarm," shows Hungarian soldiers running back and forth sounding the alarm of the Soviet counteroffensive. The drawings are dated Jan 11 and 13, 1943. [Photograph #58103]

    Beifeld album page about Soviet counteroffensive
  • Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes false papers and moving people to hiding places

    Oral History

    In 1933 Barbara's family moved to Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. They became friends of Anne Frank and her family. The Germans invaded the Netherlands in 1940. Barbara's boyfriend, Manfred, had underground contacts and she got false papers. Her mother, sister, and father were deported to the Westerbork camp and then to Auschwitz. Barbara survived using her false papers and worked for the resistance. She helped take Jews to hiding places and also hid Jews in an apartment rented under her false name.

    Barbara Ledermann Rodbell describes false papers and moving people to hiding places
  • Ruth Webber describes witnessing a brutal punishment in the camp at Ostrowiec

    Oral History

    Ruth was four years old when the Germans invaded Poland and occupied Ostrowiec. Her family was forced into a ghetto. Germans took over her father's photography business, although he was allowed to continue working outside the ghetto. Before the ghetto was liquidated, Ruth's parents sent her sister into hiding, and managed to get work at a labor camp outside the ghetto. Ruth also went into hiding, either in nearby woods or within the camp itself. When the camp was liquidated, Ruth's parents were split up.…

    Tags: camps children
    Ruth Webber describes witnessing a brutal punishment in the camp at Ostrowiec
  • Berlin-Marzahn (camp for Roma)

    Article

    The Berlin-Marzahn camp was established a few miles from Berlin's city center, for the detention of Roma, on the eve of the 1936 summer Olympics.

    Berlin-Marzahn (camp for Roma)
  • Ruth Meyerowitz describes sabotage effort in Malchow munitions factory

    Oral History

    In Frankfurt, Ruth's family faced intensifying anti-Jewish measures; her father's business was taken over and Ruth's Jewish school was closed. In April 1943, Ruth and her family were deported to Auschwitz. Ruth was selected for forced labor and assigned to work on road repairs. She also worked in the "Kanada" unit, sorting possessions brought into the camp. In November 1944, Ruth was transferred to the Ravensbrueck camp system, in Germany. She was liberated in May 1945, during a death march from the…

    Ruth Meyerowitz describes sabotage effort in Malchow munitions factory
  • Israel Ipson describes forced labor to construct an airplane runway

    Oral History

    Israel was raised in Kovno, Lithuania, and graduated from law school there in 1933. Because of anti-Jewish discrimination, he was unable to practice law. The Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, occupying Lithuania. The Kovno ghetto was established that August. By claiming to be a mechanic, Israel escaped several massacres. He was forced to work on a wooden airport runway outside the ghetto. After he escaped, Israel, his wife, and son hid in a potato pit for 9 months until liberation by Soviet…

    Israel Ipson describes forced labor to construct an airplane runway
  • Henny Fletcher Aronsen describes living conditions in the Kovno ghetto

    Oral History

    Henny was born into an upper-middle-class Jewish family in Kovno, Lithuania. She and her brother attended private schools. In June 1940 the Soviets occupied Lithuania, but little seemed to change until the German invasion in June 1941. The Germans sealed off a ghetto in Kovno in August 1941. Henny and her family were forced to move into the ghetto. Henny married in the ghetto in November 1943; her dowry was a pound of sugar. She survived several roundups during which some of her friends and family were…

    Tags: Kovno ghettos
    Henny Fletcher Aronsen describes living conditions in the Kovno ghetto
  • David Stoliar describes holding onto a piece of wreckage from the deck of the torpedoed Struma

    Oral History

    In 1936, David moved to Bucharest to live with his father. As Romania came under German influence, Romanian authorities introduced increasingly harsh measures against Jews. Antisemitic agitation increased and Jews came under attack in the streets of Bucharest and in other public places. David's father decided David should leave the country and arranged passage for him to Palestine. In December 1941, David left Romania from Constanta, a port city on the Black Sea, on the Struma, an old cattle boat. The…

    David Stoliar describes holding onto a piece of wreckage from the deck of the torpedoed Struma
  • The Evian Conference

    Article

    At the July 1938 Evian Conference, delegates from nations and organizations discussed the issue of Jewish refugees fleeing persecution in Nazi Germany. Learn more

    The Evian Conference
  • British Prosecutor Shawcross

    Film

    British Chief Prosecutor Sir Hartley Shawcross makes a final plea to the International Military Tribunal.

    British Prosecutor Shawcross

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