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  • Moringen Youth Camp


    The Moringen camp was one of the so-called youth protection camps that the Nazi regime established for young people who were alleged to have strayed from Nazi norms and ideals.

    Tags: youth camps
  • Jeno Katz

    ID Card

    One of eight children, Jeno was born to religious Jewish parents in the northeastern Hungarian town of Buj. The family later moved to the village of Zalkod, where Jeno's father ran a general store. His schooling over, Jeno became a cabinet maker. After he married, he and his wife Eloise settled down in Sarospatak, a picturesque town with a ruined medieval fortress and the Windischgratz castle. 1933-39: Jeno's sister Sadie, who had immigrated to the United States, came to visit her parents in Zalkod. At…

    Tags: Hungary
    Jeno Katz
  • Betje Jakobs

    ID Card

    Betje and her sister Saartje were born to Jewish parents in the town of Zwolle in the Netherlands' north central province of Overijssel. Betje was known affectionately as "Bep" to her friends. The Jakobs family owned a successful sporting goods store. 1933-39: As a young girl, Betje enjoyed playing the piano, knitting and tennis. At age 16, while still in secondary school, she began to date Maurits Wijnberg, a boy two years her senior, whose family owned Zwolle's Hotel Wijnberg. 1940-42: The Germans…

    Betje Jakobs
  • Berlin-Marzahn (camp for Roma)


    The Berlin-Marzahn camp was established a few miles from Berlin's city center, for the detention of Roma, on the eve of the 1936 summer Olympics.

  • Paula Garfinkel

    ID Card

    Paula was one of four children born to a religious Jewish family in Lodz, an industrial city with a large Jewish population. As a child, Paula attended public schools and was tutored at home in Jewish studies three times a week. Her father owned a furniture store. 1933-39: Paula, her brothers, and sisters spent a lot of time at the clubhouse of their Zionist group, Gordonia. Their group believed in humanistic values, Jewish self-labor, and in building a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Paula liked to work…

    Tags: ghettos
    Paula Garfinkel
  • The History of the Swastika


    The swastika is an ancient symbol that was in use in many different cultures for many years before Adolf Hitler made it the centerpiece of the Nazi flag.

    The History of the Swastika
  • Theresienstadt: "Retirement Settlement" for German and Austrian Jews


    Before June 1942, Protectorate Jews were the only "residents" of the Theresienstadt camp-ghetto. Beginning with a transport of 50 Berlin Jews arriving on June 2, 1942, the German authorities deported German, Austrian, Danziger, Luxembourger, and Sudeten Jews to Theresienstadt. Deportations  In 1942, 47,478 Jews arrived in Theresienstadt from the Greater German Reich (from Germany, 32,878; Austria, 13,922; Luxembourg, 213; Danzig, 110; and the Sudetenland, 355). In 1943, 5,398 Jews arrived in the…

    Theresienstadt: "Retirement Settlement" for German and Austrian Jews
  • Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945


    Learn about the history of discrimination against Roma in Europe and how the Nazi regime committed genocide against European Roma during WWII.

    Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945
  • Flossenbürg


    Learn about the Flossenbürg camp from its establishment until liberation in April 1945, including conditions, forced labor, subcamps, and death marches.


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