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  • Luxembourg


    German policies varied from country to country, including direct, brutal occupation and reliance upon collaborating regimes. Germany occupied Luxembourg in May 1940. Estimates of the total number of Luxembourg Jews...

  • Karl Marx


    Karl Marx was a political theorist and philosopher. He published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels. His works were burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.

    Karl Marx
  • The 10th Armored Division during World War II


    The 10th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating a subcamp of Dachau in 1945.

  • Claude Brunswic

    ID Card

    Claude was one of five children born to Jewish parents in the university city of Heidelberg. His father, a physician specializing in internal medicine, had his practice on the first floor of the apartment building in which the family lived. Claude was an avid swimmer until November 1932, when local Nazi party edicts forbad Jews to use the city pool where he swam. 1933-39: In January 1933, just after Hitler became chancellor of Germany, hoodlums attacked Jewish-owned businesses in Heidelberg. They broke…

    Claude Brunswic
  • Nazi officials and Catholic bishops listen to a speech by Wilhelm Frick


    Nazi officials and Catholic bishops listen to a speech by Wilhelm Frick, Reich Minister of the Interior, at an official ceremony in the Saarbrucken city hall marking the reincorporation of the Saarland into the German Reich. March 1, 1935. Among those pictured is Joseph Goebbels (seated at the far right), Franz Rudolf Bornewasser (Bishop of Trier) and Ludwig Sebastian (Bishop of Speyer).

    Nazi officials and Catholic bishops listen to a speech by Wilhelm Frick
  • Leo Bretholz

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    Leo was the oldest child and only son of Polish immigrants in Vienna. His father, a tailor and amateur Yiddish actor, died of an illness in 1930 when Leo was 9. His mother supported the family by working as an embroiderer; Leo helped out by looking after his two younger sisters. They lived in one of Vienna's large Jewish districts on the east side of the Danube Canal. 1933-39: Anti-Jewish sentiment escalated after Germany annexed Austria in 1938. Jewish men, including some of Leo's uncles and neighbors,…

    Leo Bretholz
  • Börgermoor Camp


    Börgermoor was part of the Nazi regime’s early system of concentration camps. It was located in the Emsland region of Prussia.

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