Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg led an extensive rescue effort during the Nazi era. His work with the War Refugee Board saved thousands of Hungarian Jews.
World War II provided both pretext and cover to new programs for killing “undesirables” regarded as burdens on national resources. Using arguments advanced by some physicians and jurists in the 1920s, the Nazis justified murder in the name of euthanasia—“mercy death”—and enlisted hundreds of asylum directors, pediatricians, psychiatrists, family doctors, and nurses. Many of those who had earlier rejected euthanasia as a eugenics measure came to support murder “for the good of the…
Recommended resources, topics, context, rationale, and critical thinking questions if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust.
Learn more about Holocaust deniers, public misinformation, and antisemitism.
Learn about Fürstengrube subcamp of Auschwitz, including its establishment, administration, prisoner population, and forced labor and conditions in the camp.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1944 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
The Nazis used poisonous gas to murder millions of people in gas vans or stationary gas chambers. The vast majority of those killed by gassing were Jews.
To implement their policies, the Nazis had help from individuals across Europe, including professionals in many fields. Learn about the role of the military.
To implement their policies, the Nazis had help from individuals across Europe, including professionals in many fields. Learn about the role of doctors and nurses.
In 1942, German authorities began to deport German and Austrian Jews to Theresienstadt. Learn about the administration of the camp-ghetto and Jews’ experiences.
Erwin Rommel was commander of the German Afrika Korps in North Africa during WWII. Learn about Rommel's military career, death, and ongoing questions around his commitment to Nazism.
Learn about the Jewish population of Denmark, the German occupation, and resistance and rescue in Denmark during WWII and the Holocaust.
Fascism is a far-right authoritarian political philosophy. Learn about the history and principles of fascism and its implementation in Nazi Germany.
The July 20, 1944, plot was a failed attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Learn more about the July 20 plot, including some of the motivations of the participants.
Learn more about the history of Yugoslavia before the Axis invasion of 1941.
The War Refugee Board was a significant US attempt to rescue and relieve Jews and other endangered people under German occupation. Learn about its activities.
Adolf Hitler established himself as absolute Führer, or leader, of the Nazi Party by 1921. Learn more about Hitler in the years 1919-1924.
Learn more about the history of Stanisławów during the Holocaust and World War II.
The "Nacht und Nebel" decree allowed German authorities to capture without trace ("by night and fog") and try individuals alleged to be "endangering German security."
Learn about conditions in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp system and the treatment of prisoners there, including medical experiments and forced labor.
Decrees that ordered Jews to wear special badges for purposes of identification existed before the Nazi era. Learn about this history.
Einsatzgruppen, often called “mobile killing units,” are best known for their role in the murder of Jews in mass shooting operations during the Holocaust.
Eugenics was a scientific movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Supporters of eugenics claimed that it offered biological solutions to social problems.
The International Military Tribunal took place in the Palace of Justice at Nuremberg, the only undamaged facility extensive enough to house the trials.
Theories of eugenics shaped many persecutory policies in Nazi Germany. Learn about the radicalization and deadly consequences of these theories and policies
After rising to power in January 1933, the Nazis began the process of moving Germany from a democracy to a dictatorship. Learn more.
Explore a timeline of key events during 1941 in the history of Nazi Germany, World War II, and the Holocaust.
On November 8–9, 1923, Hitler and the Nazi Party led an attempt to overthrow the German government. This attempted coup came to be called the Beer Hall Putsch.
The Nazi Kripo, or Criminal Police, was the detective force of Nazi Germany. During the Nazi regime and WWII, it became a key enforcer of policies based in Nazi ideology.
A variety of non-Jewish groups and individuals resisted the Nazi regime, both in Germany and in German-occupied territory. Learn more.
Explore a timeline of key events in Nazi Germany during 1933.
German pastor and theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer was an early critic of the Nazi regime. He was arrested in 1943 and executed in the Flossenbürg camp in 1945.
What is the difference between a “concentration camp” and a “killing center”? Learn about the history of these terms and what they meant in the context of Nazi oppression and murder.
The SS, a Nazi paramilitary led by Heinrich Himmler, played the central role in carrying out the “Final Solution,” the plan to murder the Jews of Europe. But, the SS did not work alone. They relied upon other German institutions and professionals.
The 1936 Olympics were the first to employ the torch relay. Learn more about this new ritual, Nazi propaganda, and the Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany.
The Nazis used propaganda to to facilitate persecution, war, and ultimately genocide. Read more about the cult of the leader around Adolf Hitler.
As part of the Holocaust, the Germans murdered about 90% of Jews in Lithuania. Read more about the tragic experience of Lithuanian Jews during World War II.
Encircling the Ruhr region was a key Allied military goal. Learn about the military campaign to capture the industrial center of western Germany in the last months of WWII.
Many extremely graphic photographs taken at the time of liberation document crimes of the Nazi era. Learn about some of the most commonly reproduced photos.
The Medical Case, or Doctors Trial, was Case #1 of 12 Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings against leading German industrialists, military figures, SS perpetrators, and others.
Learn more about Slovakia during World War II, its alliance with Nazi Germany, and its involvement in the Holocaust.
Learn more about the Nazi forced labor and mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs) during World War II.
The American Friends Service Committee, a Quaker relief organization, helped thousands of people before, during, and after World War II. Learn about its refugee aid work.
World War II was the largest and most destructive conflict in history. Learn about key WWII dates in this timeline of events, including when WW2 started and ended.
The Theresienstadt camp-ghetto existed from 1941 to 1945. Learn about its final weeks, liberation, and the postwar trials of SS commandants and other staff.
Explore a timeline of the history of the Flossenbürg camp in the Nazi camp system from its establishment in 1938 until liberation in 1945.
Before the Nazi rise to power, Jews represented less than 1% of Germany's population. Learn more about Jewish communities in Germany before the Holocaust.
Survivors of the Holocaust faced huge obstacles in rebuilding their lives. Learn about the challenges they faced in the aftermath of the Holocaust.
Learn more about Greece during World War II.
Learn more about the end of Nazi tyranny in Europe and the liberation of camps and other sites of Nazi crimes. This article includes dates of liberation of some of the camps.
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