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Police search a messenger at the entrance to the building where Vorwaerts, a Social-Democratic Party newspaper, was published. The building was subsequently occupied during the suppression of the political left wing in Germany that was carried out in response to the Reichstag Fire. Berlin, Germany, March 3–4, 1933.
This photograph shows the refugee ship Pentcho, carrying over 500 passengers bound for Palestine, sailing in the Aegean Sea. It had departed from Bratislava on May 18, 1940. In October 1940, while the Pentcho was sailing in Italian territory, its boiler exploded. The passengers and crew were able to get ashore and offload their supplies before the ship finally sank. On October 18 and 19, Italian authorities picked up the refugees and took them to Rhodes. They stayed there for over a year in a…
Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels (at podium) praises students and members of the SA for their efforts to destroy books deemed "un-German" during the book burning at Berlin's Opernplatz (opera square). Germany, May 10, 1933.
Author Lion Feuchtwanger in New York, November 17, 1932. Feuchtwanger's 1930 novel Erfolg (Success) provided a thinly veiled criticism of the Beer Hall Putsch and Hitler's rise to leadership in the Nazi Party. He was targeted by the Nazis. After the Nazi takeover on January 30, 1933, his house in Berlin was illegally searched and his library was plundered during his lecture tour in the United States.
Sisters Eva and Liane Münzer. They were placed in hiding with a devout Catholic couple. In 1944, Eva and Liane were reported to the police as a result of a fight between their rescuers. The husband denounced his wife and the two Jewish girls. The three were immediately arrested and sent to the Westerbork camp. On February 8, 1944, eight- and six-year-old Eva and Liane were deported to Auschwitz, where they were murdered. Photograph taken in The Hague, the Netherlands, 1940.
German children read an anti-Jewish propaganda book for children titled Der Giftpilz (The Poisonous Mushroom). The girl on the left holds a companion volume, the translated title of which is "Trust No Fox." Germany, ca. 1938. (Source record ID: E39 Nr .2381/5)
Russian-born Jewish artist Marc Chagall with his daughter, Ida. The Nazis declared Chagall's work "degenerate." After the fall of France, where he had been living, Chagall fled to the United States. United States, 1942.
Display from "Der ewige Jude" (The Eternal Jew), a Nazi antisemitic exhibit which claimed that Jews heavily dominated the German performing arts. A phrase at the top of the display states "Shameless Entertainment." Berlin, Germany, November 11, 1938.
Photograph of Jewish parachutist Haviva Reik taken before her mission to aid Jews in Slovakia during the Slovak national uprising. Palestine, before September 1944.
Jewish refugee children from Germany—part of a Children's Transport (Kindertransport)—at the holiday camp at Dovercourt Bay, near Harwich, shortly after their arrival in England. Dovercourt Bay, Great Britain, after December 2, 1938.
Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany, passengers on the St. Louis, disembark in the port of Antwerp. Cuba and the United States denied entry to these refugees. Belgian police guard the gangway. Antwerp, Belgium, June 17, 1939.
A British recruitment poster encourages Jews in Palestine to enlist in the Jewish Brigade Group. Palestine, January 1945. The Jewish Brigade Group of the British army, which fought under the Zionist flag, was formally established in September 1944. It included more than 5,000 Jewish volunteers from Palestine organized into three infantry battalions and several supporting units.
Jewish survivors in a displaced persons camp post signs calling for Great Britain to open the gates of Palestine to the Jews. Germany, after May 1945.
Martin Niemöller, a prominent Protestant pastor who opposed the Nazi regime. He spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps. Germany, 1937.
On September 15, 1947, defendant Paul Blobel pleads not guilty during his arraignment at the Einsatzgruppen Trial. Blobel was the commander of the unit responsible for the massacre at Babi Yar (near Kiev). He was convicted by the military tribunal at Nuremberg and sentenced to death. Blobel was hanged at the Landsberg prison on June 8, 1951.
French General Charles de Gaulle and resistance leader Georges Bidault confer before marching down the Champs-Elysees to Notre Dame in ceremonies marking the liberation of the French capital. Paris, France, August 1944.
The Anciaux family with Annie and Charles Klein (front), Jewish children whom they sheltered during the war. Brussels, Belgium, between 1943 and 1945. Carle Enelow and Yettanda Stewart (born Charles and Annie Klein) were Jewish siblings who were hidden during the war by the family of Emile Anciaux, a Belgian Catholic. Charles and Annie's parents were deported from Mechelen (Malines) to Auschwitz, where they were murdered (their father on October 31, 1942, and their mother on January 15, 1944). After the…
Identification card issued to Oskar Russ in the Feldafing displaced persons' camp. Oskar Russ was born in Poland in 1907. During the Holocaust, he was imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp. After liberation, he was in the Feldafing displaced persons camp before immigrating in 1947 to the United States with his wife (whom he had married in Feldafing).
Salek Liwer (center) with friends at a Dror Zionist youth movement seminar in the Bad Gastein displaced persons camp in Austria, 1946.
Group portrait of Jewish displaced persons (DPs) in the Leipheim DP camp. From left to right are an unidentified couple, Rubin Kaplan, Zalman Kaplan (cousin), Dwora (cousin) and her husband Eli Flaks, and their infant, Pearl.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) converse on the streets of the Neu Freimann DP camp, circa 1946–1948.The photographer, Jack Sutin, lived at the camp with his family and worked as a camp administrator and photojournalist.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) pose outside of a barracks in the Bari Transit DP camp in Italy. Among those pictured are Izidor and Tauba Schachter with their baby Miriam Schachter (now Enright), on the far right, and Etta Gipsman, on the far left.
Two women and a child stand with metal bowls in front of a soup kitchen in the Cremona displaced persons (DP) camp in Italy, 1945. Pictured are Zelda Leikach and her daughter, Masha, with their friend Hinda.
Laurette Cohen (front row, far right) poses with her students at an Alliance Israelite School in Morocco. 1935. Laurette was born in Oran, Algeria, 1911. In 1932, she married Prosper Cohen (born in Meknes in 1909). They were both teachers for the Alliance Israelite Universelle Schools in Morocco. Their daughter, Mathilde, was born in Tangiers on August 31, 1933. Before 1939, the family lived in Meknes and Fez. Later, Laurette and Prosper were sent to teach in other different locations where they were…
Joseph Roger Cheraki poses in the uniform of an Algerian soldier, ca. 1935. Joseph met Elizabeth Seiberl, and they married on October 27, 1936, in Algiers. In 1941, Joseph lost his job, their son Alfred was expelled from school, and they later had to sell their house. In 1942 Joseph, Elizabeth, and their sons Alfred and Jacques had to wear the yellow star. Boys threw stones at Alfred and Jacques. Joseph was sent to a forced-labor camp for a few months. He was eventually released. In 1946 the family…
Prisoners at forced labor building airplane parts at the Siemens factory in the Bobrek labor camp, a subcamp of Auschwitz. February-June 1944. David Stein is pictured in the row to the right, with his back to the camera; his brother Charles is in the same row, fourth from the left, facing the camera.
Planned as a short military revolt, the Warsaw Polish uprising lasted 63 days, from August to October 1944. In the end, German troops destroyed the majority of Warsaw during and immediately after the uprising. Photo dated January 17, 1945.
Psychiatric patients are evacuated to clinics where they will be murdered as part of the Nazi Euthanasia Program. Photo taken in Germany and dated circa 1942–1944. The term "euthanasia" usually refers to causing a painless death for a chronically or terminally ill individual who would otherwise suffer. In the Nazi context, however, "euthanasia" was a euphemistic or indirect term for a clandestine murder program that targeted individuals with physical and mental disabilities.
Uniformed members of the SA parade down a city street in Duisburg during a Nazi rally, circa 1928.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (left) and her daughter, Carla (second from left), visit with Dr. Mohamed Helmy (second from right) and his wife, Emmi (right), in Berlin in 1968. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Anna Gutman (Boros) (seated, center), her daughter, and son-in-law visit Dr. Mohamed Helmy (seated, left) and his wife, Emmi (seated, right), in Berlin in 1980. Dr. Helmy hid Gutman in his home for the duration of World War II.
Japanese Americans wait in line to register with the War Relocation Authority, San Francisco, California, April 1942. A government agency, the War Relocation Authority was tasked with removing “enemy aliens” from designated zones. Local authorities on the West Coast forced all “persons of Japanese ancestry” to register. They were then deported, first to temporary “assembly centers” and from there to relocation centers.
The most notorious of the 189 known interrogation centers in Cambodia was S-21, housed in a former school and now called Tuol Sleng for the hill on which it stands. Between 14,000 and 17,000 prisoners were detained there, often in primitive brick cells built in former classrooms. Only 12 prisoners are believed to have survived.
Michael Fink and his parents Manfred and Herta in the Westerbork camp, 1941–1944. Westerbork's primary role was as a transit camp. However, there was also a long-term camp population there. The Finks were among these residents. The family was in Westerbork until the spring of 1944, when they were deported to Theresienstadt. Michael and Herta survived, but Manfred was killed after being deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau and other concentration camps.
Adolf Hitler salutes a passing SS formation at the third Nazi Party Congress in 1927. Nuremberg, Germany, August 1927. The SS (Schutzstaffel, or Protection Squads) was originally established as Adolf Hitler’s personal bodyguard unit. It would later become both the elite guard of the Nazi Reich and Hitler’s executive force prepared to carry out all security-related duties, without regard for legal restraint.
An SS guard speaks with local Ukrainian women while Soviet prisoners of war carry out forced labor. A German Propaganda Company photographer took this image shortly after the SS murdered over 33,000 Jews on September 29-30,1941 at the nearby Babyn Yar killing site. Kyiv (Kiev), German-occupied Soviet Union, after September 30, 1941.
Ukrainian Jews who were forced to undress before they were massacred by Einsatzgruppe detachments. This photo, originally in color, was part of a series taken by a German military photographer. Copies from this collection were later used as evidence in war crimes trials. Lubny, Soviet Union, October 16, 1941.
Quotation from Martin Niemöller on display in the Permanent Exhibition of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Niemöller was a Lutheran minister and early Nazi supporter who was later imprisoned in the camp system for opposing Hitler's regime. First they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out-Because I was not a Socialist.Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out-Because I was not a Trade Unionist.Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out-Because I was…
Selmar and Elsa Biener joined the waiting list for US immigration visas in September 1938. Their waiting list numbers—45,685 and 45,686—indicate the number of people who had registered with the US consulate in Berlin. By September 1938, approximately 220,000 people throughout Germany, mostly Jews, were on the waiting list.
March 17, 2006. On this date, Thomas Lubanga became the first person arrested under an International Criminal Court (ICC) warrant.
March 14, 1938. On this date, Helen Baker documented what she witnessed when Germany annexed Austria. Helen and her husband Ross Baker were Americans living in Vienna.
May 29, 1938. On this date, Hungary adopted comprehensive anti-Jewish laws, excluding many Jews from professional work.
August 15, 1941. On this date, German authorities sealed approximately 30,000 Jews in the Kovno ghetto in Lithuania.
November 21, 1995. On this date, the three-year civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina ended with a peace agreement negotiated in Dayton, Ohio.
July 11, 1995. On this date, the Srebrenica massacre began. Bosnian Serb forces captured the town and killed approximately 8,000 Bosnian Muslims.
Carl Atkin was United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) director at the Deggendorf displaced persons camp. He received a songbook created by the survivors in his care. This page shows one of the songs compiled in the book.
The daughter of a white German woman and a Black French soldier stands among white classmates, Munich, 1936. This image was included as a slide for lectures on genetics, ethnology, and race breeding at the State Academy for Race and Health in Dresden, Germany.
Two American soldiers cross the Rhine River into Germany on March 29, 1945. In the foreground is Jack Caminer, who emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1938. After he was drafted into the US Army, Caminer was sent to Camp Ritchie to prepare for intelligence work. Caminer participated in the liberation of Ohrdruf.
May 25, 1993. On this date, the United Nations Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ITCY).
Deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto during the ghetto uprising. The original German caption reads: "To the Umschlagplatz." Warsaw, Poland, May 1943.
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