After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.
Otto Dix was a German artist who depicted the horrors of war. His art was targeted in the Nazi book burnings and “Degenerate Art” exhibition. Learn more.
Spectators cheer passing SA formations during a Reichsparteitag (Reich Party Day) parade in Nuremberg.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) and American soldiers at the Heidenheim DP camp, circa 1946–1947. Leon Kliot (Klott) is standing on the far right, third from the top.
Troops take the oath of obedience to Adolf Hitler. Germany, January 1939.
American judge Benjamin Barr Lindsey and his wife on a ship. Judge Lindsey's writings were among the texts the Nazis singled out during the 1933 public burnings of books. Photo dated December 4, 1915.
Portrait of American journalist John Reed, circa 1914. Reed's book Ten Days that Shook the World was among the texts Nazi students burned in 1933.
Born in Riga, Morris Hillquit became a prominent theoretician of the socialist movement after immigrating to the United States. The German translation of his work Socialism in Theory and Practice was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Photo taken circa 1910–1915.
Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov signs the German-Soviet Pact. Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him, Moscow, Soviet Union, August 23. 1939.
Explore Selma Engel's testimony and diary pages about her experiences during the Holocaust.
Three of the ten metal boxes in which portions of the Oneg Shabbat archive were hidden and buried in the Warsaw ghetto. The boxes are currently in the possession of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. In this view the three boxes are stacked on top of one another. The box on top is displayed on its side without the lid.
This identification card was issued to Sima Wajner, a Jewish resident of the Heidenheim displaced persons camp. The card identifies her as a former concentration camp inmate who had been imprisoned in the Stuffhof camp during the Holocaust. Card dated January 23, 1947.
Poster for a meeting and speech about the Jewish Bolshevik threat against Germany sponsored by the local Nazi Party of East Hannover. Depicted is a silhouetted caricature of a Jewish man’s head in left profile, with a large, red Star of David beside him. The announcement at the top of the poster reads: "Victory over Bolshevism and plutocracy means being freed from the Jewish parasite!" Created ca. 1937–1940.
Refugee passengers of the SS Quanza sent a large bouquet of red roses and this message to First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to thank her for her help. The First Lady made sure President Roosevelt saw both the flowers and the card, which were displayed prominently outside his bedroom.
Cheering spectators greet Hitler upon his departure for the Reichstag session at which the Enabling Act was passed. The act allowed the government to issue laws without the consent of Germany’s parliament, laying the foundation for the complete Nazification of German society.
Dorrith was born in Kassel, Germany, in December 1938. Her parents were Hans and Trudi Oppenheim. Following increased anti-Jewish measures, Dorrith was among the children sent on Kindertransports to find refuge in the United Kingdom. She left Germany on July 24, 1939. She never saw her parents again. They were deported to Auschwitz, where they perished in October 1944.
Portrait of Helen Keller, seated, reading Braille. September 1907. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames during the book burning were the works of Helen Keller.
As part of the IG Farben conglomerate, which strongly supported the Third Reich, the Bayer company was complicit in the crimes of Nazi Germany. Learn more.
An underground courier for the Polish government-in-exile, Jan Karski was one of the first to deliver eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust to Allied leaders.
Antisemitic propaganda of an agricultural worker kicking a stereotypically depicted Jewish man through a fence. It reads "German export: Out of our German country with the slimy Jewish band."
Cartoon depicting Jews, communists, and other enemies of the Nazis hanging on a gallows, 1935
Antisemitic cartoon showing a Jew leading a Soviet official by a leash. It reads "The 'ideal' person for the chosen people: There’s no accounting for taste."
Germany occupied Kovno, Lithuania on June 24, 1941. Within six months, German Einsatzgruppe detachments and Lithuanian collaborations had murdered half of all the Jews in Kovno. Between July and August 15, 1941, German authorities concentrated some 29,000 of Kovno's Jews into a ghetto.
Poster urging young Germans to join the Hitler Youth Landdienst [agricultural service]. It reads "Volunteers to the front! Youth to the land service of the Hitler Youth."
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