Explore Selma Engel's testimony and diary pages about her experiences during the Holocaust.
Spectators cheer passing SA formations during a Reichsparteitag (Reich Party Day) parade in Nuremberg.
Jewish displaced persons (DPs) and American soldiers at the Heidenheim DP camp, circa 1946–1947. Leon Kliot (Klott) is standing on the far right, third from the top.
Troops take the oath of obedience to Adolf Hitler. Germany, January 1939.
American judge Benjamin Barr Lindsey and his wife on a ship. Judge Lindsey's writings were among the texts the Nazis singled out during the 1933 public burnings of books. Photo dated December 4, 1915.
Portrait of American journalist John Reed, circa 1914. Reed's book Ten Days that Shook the World was among the texts Nazi students burned in 1933.
Born in Riga, Morris Hillquit became a prominent theoretician of the socialist movement after immigrating to the United States. The German translation of his work Socialism in Theory and Practice was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Photo taken circa 1910–1915.
Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov signs the German-Soviet Pact. Joachim von Ribbentrop and Josef Stalin stand behind him, Moscow, Soviet Union, August 23. 1939.
Portrait of Helen Keller, seated, reading Braille. September 1907. In 1933, Nazi students at more than 30 German universities pillaged libraries in search of books they considered to be "un-German." Among the literary and political writings they threw into the flames during the book burning were the works of Helen Keller.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Heidenheim DP camp.
Born to a Jewish family in Poland, Aaron Lejzerowicz was endangered by the German invasions of Poland and the USSR. These maps offer a small glimpse of German military activity over the course of World War II—events w...
German troops invaded Poland in September 1939. The city of Warsaw suffered heavy air attacks and artillery shelling, causing massive destruction.
Poster urging young Germans to join the Hitler Youth Landdienst [agricultural service]. It reads "Volunteers to the front! Youth to the land service of the Hitler Youth."
Election poster reading "The People Vote Listing One: Nationalsocialism," 1932-1933
German propaganda leaflet targeting African American servicemen, November 1944. The leaflets falsely suggested that African Americans would receive better treatment by the German military and encouraged them to surrender to German troops.
Antisemitic propaganda of an agricultural worker kicking a stereotypically depicted Jewish man through a fence. It reads "German export: Out of our German country with the slimy Jewish band."
Cartoon depicting Jews, communists, and other enemies of the Nazis hanging on a gallows, 1935
Antisemitic cartoon showing a Jew leading a Soviet official by a leash. It reads "The 'ideal' person for the chosen people: There’s no accounting for taste."
Germany occupied Kovno, Lithuania on June 24, 1941. Within six months, German Einsatzgruppe detachments and Lithuanian collaborations had murdered half of all the Jews in Kovno. Between July and August 15, 1941, German authorities concentrated some 29,000 of Kovno's Jews into a ghetto.
Antisemitic propaganda flyer comparing Jews to diseases. It reads "Tuberculosis Syphilis Cancer are curable ... It is necessary to finish the biggest curse: The Jew!"
Hitler Youth members listen to a speech by Adolf Hitler at a Nazi "party day" rally. Nuremberg, Germany, September 11, 1935.
Frieda Greinegger during a family outing to a park in the mid-1930s. Frieda would later spend almost two years in the Ravensbrück concentration camp as punishment for consorting with a Polish forced laborer, Julian Noga. Austria, ca. 1935.
In a scene from a Nazi propaganda film, Dr. Paul Eppstein (right), Council of Elders chairman, addresses Dutch Jews. Theresienstadt ghetto, Czechoslovakia, August 1944.
A German motorcycle unit advances through the Bydgoszcz region during the invasion of Poland. September 18, 1939.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.