Nazi propaganda postcard showing a crowd of saluting Germans superimposed on an enlarged image of Adolf Hitler with a member of the SA (Storm Trooper) who holds a swastika flag. Munich, Germany, ca. 1932.
Hajj Amin al-Husayni in the company of German SS and Bosnian members of the Waffen-SS during an official visit to Bosnia, ca. 1943.
The footbridge over Zgierska Street that joined the two parts of the Lodz ghetto. The street itself was not part of the ghetto. Lodz, Poland, ca. 1941.
A column of prisoners arrives at the Belzec killing center. Belzec, Poland, ca. 1942. In early 1940 the Germans set up a forced-labor camp for Jewish prisoners in Belzec. The inmates were forced to build fortifications and dig anti-tank ditches along the demarcation line between Germany and Soviet-occupied Poland. The camp was closed down at the end of 1940. The following year, in November 1941, construction began on the Belzec killing center.
A chart of prisoner markings used in German concentration camps. Dachau, Germany, ca. 1938-1942. Beginning in 1937–1938, the SS created a system of marking prisoners in concentration camps. Sewn onto uniforms, the color-coded badges identified the reason for an individual’s incarceration, with some variation among camps. The Nazis used this chart illustrating prisoner markings in the Dachau concentration camp.
Jews forced into the Kovno ghetto move their belongings into the ghetto. In the center, a man is pulling a disassembled wardrobe. He was never able to put it together because of the crowded conditions in the ghetto. Clothes were often hung from nails in the wall instead. Lithuania, ca. 1941-1942.
In the Warsaw ghetto, Jewish children with bowls of soup. Warsaw, Poland, ca. 1940. During the Holocaust, the creation of ghettos was a key step in the Nazi process of brutally separating, persecuting, and ultimately destroying Europe's Jews. Ghettos were often enclosed districts that isolated Jews from the non-Jewish population and from other Jewish communities.
Jewish refugee boys at the Maison des Pupilles de la Nation children's home in Aspet. These children reached the home through the efforts of the Children's Aid Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants; OSE) and the American Friends Service Committee. Aspet, France, ca. 1942.
A US soldier stands among the corpses of prisoners exhumed from a mass grave in a ravine near Nammering. On April 19, 1945, a freight train with nearly 4,500 prisoners from Buchenwald pulled onto the railroad siding at Nammering. Hundreds of prisoners who had died on the train were buried in the mass grave along with the prisoners who were forced to carry the corpses to the ravine and were then shot. Germany, ca. May 6, 1945.
Family and friends are gathered for a Jewish wedding celebration in Kovno. Among those pictured are Jona and Gita Wisgardisky (standing at the back on the right). In the summer of 1941 soon after the German occupation of Lithuania, the Wisgardisky family was forced into the Kovno ghetto. During a roundup of children in the ghetto in 1942, Henia (Gita and Jona's daughter) was hidden in a secret room that her father built in a pantry in their apartment. Later she was smuggled out of the ghetto and…
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