German soldiers in the Soviet Union during a December 1943 Soviet offensive on the eastern front. German troops invaded Soviet territory in June 1941 but faced counteroffensives following the battle of Stalingrad. December 16, 1943.
US troops wade ashore at Normandy on D-Day, the beginning of the Allied invasion of France to establish a second front against German forces in Europe. Normandy, France, June 6, 1944.
A US PT (Patrol Torpedo) boat off the coast of New Guinea, during an American counteroffensive against Japanese advances in the Solomon Islands in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 1943.
German forces occupied Riga in early July 1941. Here, war damage to Riga's city hall is shown by blackened areas around the building's windows. Riga, Latvia, August 1941.
In 1942, Germany dominated most of Europe. Greater Germany had been enlarged at the expense of its neighbors. Austria and Luxembourg were completely incorporated. Territories from Czechoslovakia, Poland, France, Belgium, and the Baltic states were seized by Greater Germany. German military forces occupied Norway, Denmark, Belgium, northern France, Serbia, parts of northern Greece, and vast tracts of territory in eastern Europe. Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Finland, Croatia, and Vichy France…
Learn more about the plight of Jewish refugees who attempted to escape Germany between 1933 and 1939.
Learn more about Polish Jewish refugees that relocated to Lithuania between 1939-1940.
Near the end of WWII, the Germans began marching prisoners out of camps and away from the front. Read more about the brutal conditions of these death marches.
During WWII, a few thousand Polish Jewish refugees lived in Japan. Learn more about the wartime relocation into and the conditions of the Shanghai ghetto.
After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to Aron and Lisa Derman's story.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. View the list of all donors.