Rosa Luxemburg was a Marxist and a leader of the radical wing of the German Social Democratic Party. Her work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Stefan Zweig was a prolific author and one of the most popular writers of the interwar period. His work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933. Learn more.
Learn about the administration and commandants of the Auschwitz camp complex in German-occupied Poland.
Japan's aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, changed many Americans' attitudes toward involvement in WWII. The US immediately declared war on Japan.
In 1936, Germany and Italy signed a military alliance. The two powers formed the so-called Berlin-Rome Axis. This footage shows Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini's state visit to Germany in September 1937. He met with Hitler in Munich and the two leaders also toured other parts of Germany. During the state visit, Mussolini attended a military parade in Berlin, Germany's capital. Although both dictators declared their desire for peace, Germany would begin World War II in 1939. Italy would then enter…
Key dates associated with Hajj Amin al-Husayni, former Mufti of Jerusalem who participated in a pro-Axis coup in Iraq in 1941. Explore further
The American Jewish Congress led anti-Nazi protest rallies in the 1930s and 1940s. Learn about the AJC's creation, leadership, activities, and rescue efforts.
Learn more about Aliyah Bet, the clandestine immigration of Jews to Palestine between 1920 and 1948, when Great Britain controlled the area.
Economic, governmental, and political life in the Jewish community of Kalisz between World War and World War II.
Eugenics in Germany Following Germany’s defeat in World War I and during the political and economic crises of the Weimar Republic, ideas known as racial hygiene or eugenics began to inform population policy, public health education, and government-funded research. Proponents of eugenics argued that by keeping the “unfit” alive to reproduce and multiply, modern medicine and costly welfare programs interfered with natural selection. (Natural selection was the concept that Charles Darwin applied to the…
Adolf Hitler's Nazi aimed to purify the genetic makeup of the German population through measures known as racial hygiene or eugenics.
To implement their policies, the Nazis had help from individuals across Europe, including professionals in many fields. Learn about the role of German clergy and church leaders.
Key dates illustrating the relationship between Germany’s professional military elite and the Nazi state, and the German military’s role in the Holocaust.
Key dates in the life of Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Main Office, the SS and police agency most directly concerned with implementing Final Solution.
Learn about North Africa's Jewish communities; WWII military campaigns in North Africa; Vichy's introduction of race laws; and networks of labor camps in North Africa.
An African-American soldier with the 12th Armored Division, Seventh U.S. Army, stands guard ov...
The 4th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Ohrdruf subcamp of Buchenwald in 1945.
The 9th Armored Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating Zwodau and Falkenau an der Eger, Flossenbürg subcamps, in 1945.
The 99th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating subcamps of the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.
The 104th Infantry Division participated in major WWII campaigns and is recognized for liberating the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp in 1945.
Shortly after taking power in January 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis took control of German newspapers, detailing how the news was to be reported.
Brief overview of the charges against Karl Dönitz, German navy commander in chief, during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
Brief overview of the charges against Alfred Jodl, chief of the German Armed Forced High Command, during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
Brief overview of the charges against Erich Raeder, German navy commander in chief, during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
Brief overview of the charges against Fritz Sauckel, Nazi general plenipotentiary for labour deployment, during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
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