<h2>Background</h2>
<p>The Nazi <a href="/narrative/72/en">Holocaust</a> that devastated European Jewry and virtually destroyed its centuries-old culture also wiped out the great European population centers of Sephardi (or Judeo-Spanish) Jewry and led to the almost complete demise of its unique language and traditions. Sephardi Jewish communities from France and the Netherlands in the northwest to Yugoslavia and Greece in the southeast almost disappeared.</p>
<p>On the eve of World War II, the European Sephardi community was concentrated in the Balkan countries of <a href="/narrative/4964/en">Greece</a>, <a href="/narrative/11457/en">Yugoslavia</a>, and <a href="/narrative/5955/en">Bulgaria</a>. Its leading centers were in <a href="/narrative/5364/en">Salonika</a>, Sarajevo, Belgrade, and Sofia.</p>
<h2>Fate of Balkan Jewish Communities</h2>
<p>The experience of the Balkan Jewish communities during the war varied greatly and depended on the type of regime under which they fell.</p>
<p>The Jewish communities of <strong>Serbia and northern Greece</strong>, including the 50,000 Jews of Salonika, fell under direct German occupation in April 1941 and bore the full weight and intensity of Nazi repressive measures from dispossession, humiliation, and forced labor to hostage taking, and finally deportation to <a href="/narrative/3673/en">Auschwitz-Birkenau</a> and extermination in March-August 1943.</p>
<p><img class="image-embed embedded-narrative" src="/narrative/5369/thumb" alt="Some 7,000 Jewish men ordered to register for forced labor assemble in Liberty Square in German-occupied Salonika." data-narrative-stem-id="5369" data-narrative-slug="some-7000-jewish-men-ordered-to-register-for-forced-labor-assemble-in-liberty-square-in-german-occupied-salonika" data-narrative-type-name="photo" data-narrative-type-id="43" data-narrative-langcode="en" /></p>
<p>The Jewish population of <strong>southern Greece</strong> fell under the jurisdiction of the Italians who eschewed the enactment of anti-Jewish legislation and resisted whenever possible German efforts to transfer them to Poland, until the surrender of Italy on September 8, 1943 brought the Jews under German control.</p>
<p>Sephardi Jews in <strong>Bosnia and Croatia</strong> were ruled by a German-created Fascist-Catholic satellite state from April 1941, which subjected them to pogrom-like actions before herding them into local camps where they were murdered side by side with Serbs and <a href="/narrative/4500/en">Roma</a> (Gypsies).</p>
<p><img class="image-embed embedded-narrative" src="/narrative/5892/thumb" alt="Ustasa (Croatian fascist) camp guards order a Jewish man to remove his ring before being shot." data-narrative-stem-id="5892" data-narrative-slug="ustasa-croatian-fascist-camp-guards-order-a-jewish-man-to-remove-his-ring-before-being-shot" data-narrative-type-name="photo" data-narrative-type-id="43" data-narrative-langcode="en" /></p>
<p>The Jews of <strong>Macedonia and Thrace</strong> were controlled by Bulgarian occupation forces, which after rendering them stateless, rounded them up and turned them over to the Germans for deportation.</p>
<p><a class="other-embed embedded-narrative" href="/content/en/gallery/deportation-of-jews-from-macedonia" data-narrative-stem-id="28049" data-narrative-type-id="38" data-narrative-type-name="gallery" data-narrative-slug="deportation-of-jews-from-macedonia" data-narrative-langcode="en"> Deportation of Jews from Macedonia </a></p>
<p>Finally, the Jews of <strong>Bulgaria proper</strong> were under the rule of a Nazi ally that subjected them to ruinous anti-Jewish legislation, but ultimately yielded to pressure from Bulgarian parliamentarians, clerics, and intellectuals not to deport them. More than 50,000 Bulgarian Jews were thus saved.</p>
<p><img class="image-embed embedded-narrative" src="/asset/1982/thumb" alt="Norbert J. Yasharoff describes the change in living conditions for Jews in Bulgaria" data-narrative-stem-id="5968" data-narrative-slug="norbert-j-yasharoff-describes-the-change-in-living-conditions-for-jews-in-bulgaria" data-narrative-type-name="oral-history" data-narrative-type-id="42" data-narrative-langcode="en" /></p>

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