German troops occupied Lodz in September 1939. In 1940, the Germans established a ghetto there, confining 160,000 Jews into a small area and later deporting Jews and Roma (Gypsies) there as well. Many people died in Lodz as a direct result of the ghetto's harsh living conditions. In early 1942, German authorities began to deport ghetto residents to the Chelmo killing center.
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