Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics
Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically
Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust
Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust
The Secrets of the Wise Men of Zion is the first documented version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion published outside of Russia. Published in Charlottenburg, Germany, 1920.
Like many editions of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in the 1920s, this French-language version charges that Jews are a foreign and dangerous influence. Published in Paris, 1920.
Cover of The Jewish Peril: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, published in London, 1920.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is the most notorious and widely distributed antisemitic publication of modern times. Its lies about Jews, which have been repeatedly discredited, continue to circulate today, especially on the Internet.
The International Jew, based largely on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, sold more than 500,000 copies and was translated into at least 16 languages. Published in Dearborn, Michigan, United States, 1920.
By 1922, The International Jew was already in its 21st printing in Germany. The edition shown here was published in Leipzig in 1922.
New York Herald reporter Herman Bernstein declared the Protocols “a cruel and terrible lie invented for the purpose of defaming the entire Jewish people.” Published in New York, 1921, reprinted 1928.
Alfred Rosenberg's 1923 commentary on the Protocols reinforced Nazi anti-Jewish ideology. This is the fourth edition. Published in Munich, 1933.
King Faisal of Saudi Arabia regularly presented copies of this edition of the Protocols to state visitors during the early 1970s. Published in Karachi, Pakistan, 1969. Courtesy of Hassan Mneimneh.
This Arabic translation of the Protocols by Ajaj Nuwayid also has appeared on a website sponsored by the Palestinian State Information Service. Published in Beirut, Lebanon, 1996.
This 2005 Syrian edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion claims that the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were orchestrated by a Zionist conspiracy. The final chapter predicts the eventual destruction of the State of Israel. Published in Damascus, Syria, 2005. Gift of the Embassy of Israel.
We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
View the list of all donors.