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Allied Occupation of Germany and Austria Continental Europe emerged from German domination in 1945, shattered and transformed. After the German surrender, Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union divided Germany and Austria into four occupation zones, each to be administered by one of the victorious powers. The cities of Berlin and Vienna were similarly divided and occupied. Soviet Annexations With the acquiescence of the western allies, the Soviets re-annexed eastern Poland,…
Adolf Hitler and his entourage view a military parade following the annexation of Austria (the Anschluss). Vienna, Austria, March 1938.
Learn about the German annexation of Austria, the establishment of Nazi camps, Kristallnacht, and deportations from Austria during the Holocaust.
Scene during Adolf Hitler's triumphant return to Berlin shortly after Germany's annexation of Austria (the Anschluss). Berlin, Germany, March 17, 1938.
Adolf Hitler was determined to overturn the military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Learn more about Nazi German territorial aggression before WWII.
It was becoming more and more evident that, um, that Jews, uh, should leave if anybody at all would have them, and not very many countries would have them.—Kurt Klein Several factors determined the ebb and flow of emigration of Jews from Germany. These included the degree of pressure placed on the Jewish community in Germany and the willingness of other countries to admit Jewish immigrants. However, in the face of increasing legal repression and physical violence, many Jews fled Germany. Until…
Franz von Papen was one of the leading German officials tried during the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. He was acquitted of all charges.
The Anschluss, Germany's annexation of Austria in March 1938, was the Nazi German regime’s first act of territorial aggression and expansion. Learn more.
In an attempt to prevent the German annexation of Austria, Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg called a plebiscite (referendum) on Austrian independence. On March 11, 1938, the Germans pressured Schuschnigg to cancel the plebiscite and resign. This German newsreel footage from March and April 1938 served as propaganda for the Nazi annexation of Austria. It begins with images of pro-Nazi residents in Graz expressing their opposition to Schuschnigg's plebiscite. It also includes footage after…
A streetcar decorated with swastikas passes billboards displaying Hitler's face. The billboards urge Austrians to vote "Ja" (Yes) in the upcoming plebiscite on the German annexation of Austria. Vienna, Austria, April 1938.
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