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Members of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council pose with two milkcans containing a Scroll of Remembrance signed by Holocaust survivors at a symbolic groundbreaking ceremony for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Benjamin Meed is second from the left. Washington, DC, April 30, 1984. During groundbreaking ceremonies in April 1985, the containers were buried on the site of the Museum.
Cartoon depicting the United States' response to the refugee crisis in Europe, as well as the racism and discrimination African Americans faced at home. The Pittsburgh Courier, April 16, 1938. Page 10. Domestic concerns in the United States, including unemployment and national security, combined with prevalent antisemitism and racism, shaped America's immigration policies, responses to Nazism, and willingness to aid European Jews.
Otto Perl poses with his US Army unit at Camp Ritchie, Maryland, circa 1945. Born in Austria, Perl served in the Austrian Army until March 1938, when he was dismissed because he was Jewish. With the help of a friend, Perl was able to obtain a US visa. He reached New York in 1940. Several thousand of the soldiers who trained at Camp Ritchie were Jewish refugees who had immigrated to the United States to escape Nazi persecution.
Antisemitic propaganda in the United States that presents President Franklin D. Roosevelt's declaration of a state of unlimited national emergency as the product of an international Jewish conspiracy to save world Jewry and to bring destruction upon America. United States, ca. 1938–41. Among the antisemitic declarations on the caricature are: "Jews Are The Cause of High Taxes - Slavery - Starvation and Death ---" "How long will the American people continue to tolerate this…
Born to Roman Catholic parents in Poland, Jozef Wilk was a teenager when Germany invaded in 1939. Jozef left for Warsaw and joined a special unit of the Polish resistance. During the 1943 Warsaw ghetto uprising, Joz...
Read the Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation's short biography of Walter Marx.
Sholem Asch was a Yiddish dramatist and novelist. He depicted small town Jewish life and socialist themes. His work was burned in Nazi Germany in 1933.
Blitzkrieg, meaning "Lightning War" in German, was Germany’s strategy to avoid a long war in the first phase of World War II in Europe.
Army Signal Corps photographer Arnold E. Samuelson documented Allied military campaigns, Nazi crimes, and the plight of concentration camp prisoners.
Nazi Germany’s dedicated filming of itself became evidence of its crimes and was displayed at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Learn more.
Lawyer Robert Kempner was expelled from Germany in 1935. After WWII, he would return to serve as assistant US chief counsel during the IMT at Nuremberg.
Vicki Baum was a bestselling author who embraced the ideals of liberation for women. Her works were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Learn more.
Werner Hegemann was a city planner and author. The Nazis opposed his views of American architecture and German historical figures. His book was burned in 1933.
John Reed was a journalist who helped found the Communist US Labor Party. During the 1933 Nazi book burnings, his work was burned for its Communist sympathies.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about Salzburg DP camp.
After WWII, many Holocaust survivors, unable to return to their homes, lived in displaced persons camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. Read about München Neu Freimann DP camp.
Learn more about the Soviet occupation of Europe before and after the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of World War II.
View an animated map of activities of the Einsatzgruppen—often called "mobile killing units"—as they followed the German army into newly seized territories.
Architectural details in the third floor lounge in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Photograph of exterior wall of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Although constrained by powerful isolationist sentiment in the United States, President Roosevelt was determined to help democratic Great Britain continue the war against Nazi Germany. Even as he promised to keep the United States neutral in the European war, Roosevelt ordered the expansion of military construction and pledged--as shown in this footage--that the United States would serve as the "great arsenal of democracy." In March 1941, Congress approved Lend-Lease aid for Britain. Britain ultimately…
In the 1980s and 1990s, historian Peter Black worked for the US Department of Justice Office of Special Investigations, as part of a team tracking and prosecuting suspected war criminals. Black later served as the Senior Historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
US State Department official Breckinridge Long supervised the Visa Division, which placed new restrictions on immigration to the US in the 1940s. Learn more.
Key dates in the use of the term genocide as part of the political, legal, and ethical vocabulary of responding to widespread threats of violence against groups.
Jozef Tiso was a Slovak politician and a Roman Catholic priest. From 1939 to 1945, he was the president of the Slovak Republic, one of Nazi Germany’s allies.
Léon Degrelle was an extreme right-wing Belgian politician and Nazi collaborator. After the war, he continued to spread pro-Nazi propaganda for decades. Learn more.
"Learn more about Stanisławów during World War II. This article is an excerpt from Nechama Tec’s Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust (2003). "
The Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service, SD) was a Nazi intelligence agency. Ideologically radical and part of the SS, it was a key perpetrator of the Holocaust.
Learn about the Holocaust, the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators.
Learn about US journalists, including Edward Murrow, William Shirer, and Dorothy Thompson, and their impact during the Nazi rise to power and WWII .
On November 8–9, 1923, Hitler and the Nazi Party led an attempt to overthrow the German government. This attempted coup came to be called the Beer Hall Putsch.
Former Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Amin al-Husayni was an exiled political leader who sought an alliance with the Axis Powers. Learn about his wartime propaganda efforts.
After WWII and the fall of the Nazi regime, Holocaust survivors faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives. Listen to Thomas Buergenthal's story.
Light cast on architectural details in the Hall of Witness of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Visitors view the eternal flame in the Hall of Remembrance at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Visitors in the Hall of Witness in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Photograph taken from the Museum's second floor. October 1994.
Visitors in the Hall of Witness at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC., April 1998.
Portrait of James Ingo Freed, architect of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. New York, April 1992.
Judge Thomas Buergenthal (top row, fifth from left) and other members of the United Nations Human Rights Committee. 1995.
Portrait of Benjamin Meed, leading advocate for Jewish Holocaust survivors and a founder of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
SS chief Heinrich Himmler reviews a unit of SS-police in Krakow, Poland, March 13, 1942.
Flags of US Army liberating divisions on display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C.
Installation of the railcar at the construction site of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, DC, February 9, 1991.
Athletes Jesse Owens of the United States (right) and Lutz Long of Germany at the Olympic stadium. Berlin, Germany, 1936.
Portrait of John Pehle, Executive Director of the War Refugee Board. United States, 1940s.
A German motorcycle unit advances through the Bydgoszcz region during the invasion of Poland. September 18, 1939.
Antisemitic poster equating Jews with communism. The poster calls for the boycotting of Jewish interests. United States, 1939.
With bowls in hand, conscripts of a Jewish Hungarian labor unit wait for food. Abony, Hungary, 1940.
Father Charles Coughlin, leader of the antisemitic Christian Front, delivers a radio broadcast. Detroit, United States, March 11, 1935.
Father Charles Coughlin, leader of the antisemitic Christian Front, delivers a radio broadcast. United States, February 4, 1940.
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