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Inmates at forced labor in the Ravensbrück concentration camp. Germany, between 1940 and 1942.
Children forced laborers in a carpentry shop. Kovno ghetto, Lithuania, between 1941 and 1944.
Jewish women sort confiscated clothing in the Lodz ghetto. Photograph taken by Mendel Grossman between 1941 and 1944.
Mendel Grossman photograph collection
Jewish forced laborers at work in a leather refining factory. Lodz ghetto, Poland, between 1941 and 1944.
Jewish forced laborers at work making shoes in a ghetto workshop. Kovno, Lithuania, December 1943.
Prisoners at forced labor in the Siemens factory. Auschwitz camp, Poland, 1940–44.
Jews from a Slovak labor battalion working at road building. Slovakia, December 1941.
Jewish forced laborers in the quarry of a forced-labor camp established by the Hungarian government. Tokaj, Hungary, 1940.
Forced-labor detachment of Jewish prisoners of war from the Polish army. Magdeburg, Germany, 1940.
Returning from work in a stone quarry, forced laborers carry stones more than six miles to the Buchenwald concentration camp. Germany, date uncertain.
A column of Jewish forced laborers. Sarospatok, Hungary, 1941.
"Ostarbeiter" (eastern workers) were mostly eastern European women brought to Germany for forced labor. They wore an "OST" identification patch (lower center of photograph) Germany, after 1942.