At the end of World War II, more than three-quarters of the city of Nuremberg, Germany, lay in rubble. This US Army Air Corps color footage shows some of the war damage in Nuremberg, which had been host in the 1920s and 1930s to massive and lavish rallies for the Nazi party.
This film clip shows translators in action at the Nuremberg trial. English, French, Russian, and German were the official languages of the Nuremberg trials. Interpreters provided simultaneous translations of the court proceedings which were then available to the trial participants via headphones.
American judges (top row, seated) during the Doctors Trial, case #1 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. Presiding Judge Walter B. Beals is seated second from the left. Nuremberg, Germany, December 9, 1946–August 20, 1947.
Otto Ohlendorf, commander of Einsatzgruppe D (mobile killing unit D), during Trial 9 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings. This photograph shows Ohlendorf pleading "not guilty" during his arraignment at the Einsatzgruppen Trial. Nuremberg, Germany, September 15, 1947.
A Polish former inmate of Auschwitz identifies Oswald Pohl while on the stand for the prosecution during the Pohl/WVHA trial. This trial, case #4 of the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, took place in a room in the Palace of Justice which was not the main courtroom. Nuremberg, Germany, April 18, 1947.
View of the interpreters' section in the courtroom during the International Military Tribunal. Nuremberg, Germany, March 29, 1946. The Nuremberg trials were an early experiment in simultaneous translation. The charter of the International Military Tribunal stated that the defendants had the right to a fair trial and that, accordingly, all proceedings be translated into a language that the defendants understood.
Defendant Alfred Rosenberg, the former chief Nazi Party ideologist, reads a document during the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. Behind him is his co-defendant General Alfred Jodl, formerly the Chief of Staff for the Army. Nuremberg, Germany, 1945–1946.
Fritz Sauckel follows the proceedings of the International Military Tribunal trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and was sentenced to death. Photograph taken in Nuremberg, Germany, between November 20, 1945, and October 1, 1946.
Defendant Julius Streicher in his prison cell at Nuremberg. For his influential role in inciting hatred and violence, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg indicated Streicher on count four, crimes against humanity. Streicher was found guilty and sentenced to death. He was hanged on October 16, 1946.
Herta Oberheuser was a physician at the Ravensbrück concentration camp. This photograph shows her being sentenced at the Doctors Trial in Nuremberg. Oberheuser was found guilty of performing medical experiments on camp inmates and was sentenced to 20 years in prison. Nuremberg, Germany, August 20, 1947.
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