Born: December 17, 1923
Paul was one of three children born to Jewish parents. They lived in a small city with a large Jewish population in central Moldavia. Paul's Ukrainian-born father had been stationed in Romania during World War I, and chose to remain there rather than return to Ukraine after the 1917 Russian Revolution.
1933-39: Paul's household observed the Jewish holidays. He loved Passover with its special meals and the opportunity to show off new clothes. On the radio his family heard about the Nazis in Germany; in their own country, the antisemitic Iron Guard was becoming more popular. One morning in September 1939 Paul saw signs of the war for the first time: retreating Polish soldiers rode down our street, looking hungry and thirsty.
1940-44: The fascist Iron Guard was in power. Being forced out of public school was the first of many measures Paul suffered because he was a Jew. Paul and his friends refused to remain passive. Building a radio and listening to foreign broadcasts were their first acts of defiance. They helped the underground by smuggling news inside soap bars and putting sand in German gas tanks. By cutting electric wires they sabotaged production at a factory where Paul was a forced laborer making uniforms for the German army.
Suspected of sabotage, Paul was arrested and tortured by Romanian police, but was released just before Soviet troops invaded Romania in 1944. He moved to the United States in 1972.