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Wladislava Karolewska, a victim of medical experiments at the Ravensbrück camp, was one of four Polish women who appeared as prosecution witnesses at the Doctors Trial. Nuremberg, Germany, December 22, 1946.
View of the furnaces remaining in the Majdanek camp by the time of liberation. The Germans had attempted to destroy the building as Soviet forces advanced in 1944. Majdanek, Poland, after July 22, 1944.
A British policeman (left) organizes the arrest of passengers from the Aliyah Bet ("illegal" immigration) ship Parita after they disembarked near Tel Aviv. Palestine, August 22, 1939.
A large crowd fills Eisenhower Plaza during the dedication ceremony of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Flags of the liberating divisions form the backdrop to the opening ceremony. Washington, DC, April 22, 1993.
Studio portrait of Jankl Zuckerkandel, taken in The Hague, the Netherlands, in or around 1941. Jankl was killed in Sobibor at the age of three.
Thomas at age 13 months with his father, Mundek Buergenthal. Czechoslovakia, June 1935.
Anne Frank at 11 years of age, two years before going into hiding. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1940.
Anne Frank at five years of age. Bad Aachen, Germany, September 11, 1934.
SS Police State An important tool of Nazi terror was the Protective Squad (Schutzstaffel), or SS, which began as a special guard for Adolf Hitler and other party leaders. The black-shirted SS members formed a smaller, elite group whose members also served as auxiliary policemen and, later, as concentration camp guards. Eventually overshadowing the Storm Troopers (SA) in importance, the SS became, after 1934, the private army of the Nazi Party. SS chief Heinrich Himmler also turned the regular (nonparty)…
Ghettos in Poland Millions of Jews lived in eastern Europe. After Germany invaded Poland in 1939, more than two million Polish Jews came under German control. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, several million more Jews came under Nazi rule. The Germans aimed to control this sizable Jewish population by forcing Jews to reside in marked-off sections of towns and cities the Nazis called "ghettos" or "Jewish residential quarters." Altogether, the Germans created at least 1,000 ghettos in…
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