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  • Janowska - Photographs

    Media Essay

    Janowska was a forced labor camp for Jews in German-occupied Poland. It also served as a transit camp during the mass deportations of Polish Jews to the killing centers in 1942. Jews underwent a selection process in Janowska similar to that used a...

  • Gurs - Photographs

    Media Essay

    Almost 22,000 prisoners—more than 18,000 of them Jewish—passed through the Gurs camp in France. Living conditions in Gurs were overcrowded. Prisoners faced a constant shortage of water, food, and clothing. Many of the camp's Jewish prisoners were...

  • Gurs - ID Cards/Oral Histories

    Media Essay

    Almost 22,000 prisoners—more than 18,000 of them Jewish—passed through the Gurs camp in France. Living conditions in Gurs were overcrowded. Prisoners faced a constant shortage of water, food, and clothing. Many of the camp's Jewish prisoners were...

  • Płaszów - Photographs

    Media Essay

    The Płaszów camp was established in 1942 under the authority of the SS and police leaders in Krakow (Cracow). Płaszów was initially a forced-labor camp for Jews, but became a concentration camp in 1944. The largest...

  • Płaszów - Maps

    Media Essay

    The Płaszów camp was established in 1942 under the authority of the SS and police leaders in Krakow (Cracow). Płaszów was initially a forced-labor camp for Jews, but became a concentration camp in 1944. The largest number of people confined there...

  • Natzweiler-Struthof - Maps

    Media Essay

    Located in eastern France, the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp was one of the smaller camps built by the Germans. From May 1941 to March 1945, between 19,000 and 20,000 people were murdered in the Natzweiler-Struthof camp system.

  • Salonika - Photograph

    Media Essay

    Before World War II, Salonika had the largest Jewish community in Greece. In April 1941, Germany occupied parts of Greece, including Salonika. Between 1941 and 1943, Salonika's Jewish community was destroyed. More t...

  • Breendonk - Photographs

    Media Essay

    Breendonk was an internment camp in German-occupied Belgium. The site had originally been built in the early twentieth century to serve as a Belgian fortress. After Germany conquered Belgium in May 1940, the Germans turned Breendonk into an internme...

  • Mechelen - Maps

    Media Essay

    In the summer of 1942, the Germans made preparations to deport the Jews of Belgium. They converted military barracks in the city of Mechelen into a transit camp. Between August 4, 1942, and July 31, 1944, a total of 28 trains carrying 25,257 Jews left Mechelen for German-occupied Poland; most of them went to Auschwitz-Birkenau. This figure represented more than half of the Belgian Jews murdered during the Holocaust.

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