Lampertheim was a small Jewish displaced persons (DP) camp that opened on December 15, 1945, primarily to provide additional space for refugees from the overcrowded Zeilsheim DP camp. It was situated between Mannheim and Darmstadt in the Frankfurt district of the American zone of occupation. At its peak in 1946–47, the camp housed over 1,200 DPs, many of whom were Polish survivors. The DPs lived in houses requisitioned from the village.

The Lampertheim DP camp boasted a library of approximately 500 Yiddish, German, and Hebrew books, all of which were donated by American Jewish organizations and the Jewish Agency in Palestine. Lampertheim also maintained an elementary school, a Talmud Torah (religious elementary school), a kindergarten, a synagogue, and a kosher kitchen. In December 1947, religious residents of the camp protested against a theater performance on the Jewish Sabbath.

Unusual among DP camps, Lampertheim had a health center, staffed by doctors who were also residents and who helped with the many births in the camp, and a post office which assisted in tracing missing relatives.

The camp's newspaper was entitled Frayhayt (Freedom) and was printed until May 24, 1949, when Lampertheim closed.